The Idea Of American Exceptionalism In Geographic Mobility (Essay Sample)
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Review Essay 2
1. Discuss the idea of American exceptionalism in the context of occupational and geographic mobility.
One of the tenets of American exceptionalism is that there is intergenerational social, occupational and geographic mobility and people are not inhibited by where they come from and can move to seek better opportunities anywhere if possible (Jantti et al., 2006) and (Ferrie 2005). The United States is a vast country of great contrasts, and different state laws and since the economy is diversified there are more opportunities for those who move and attain better skills.
2. Explain the distinction between absolute and relative mobility between occupations.
Absolute mobility: Compares intergenerational level of social mobility life, and identifies the changes in the social structure as a whole.
Relative mobility: Comparative probabilities of becoming part of the different classes that individuals from different social backgrounds have and measures social mobility.
3. Define the concept of an odds ratio. Calculate the odds ratios for the third and fourth rows and columns of panels A and B in Table 1.
The Odds Ratios measures relative mobility and is an indicator of the social mobility that occurs in a social structure and in Ferrie’s article the measure is used to assess the link between
4. Explain whether the answer to the previous question strengthens or weakens the claim that intergenerational occupational mobility in the United States decreased between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Intergenerational occupational mobility increases when there have been improvements in social mobility over generations including improved level of well-being (economic, educational and occupational). “The odds white collar sons would get white collar rather than farm jobs relative to the odds that farmers' sons would get white collar rather than farm jobs compares in two eras” (Ferrie, 2005). The odds ratio decreased between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and so too has the intergenerational mobility.
5. Describe the concept of an Altham statistic. How does the Altham statistic change in the United States from the nineteenth to the twentieth centuries?
The Altham statistic d (P, Q) is used in calculating intergenerational associations in occupations when studying social mobility, but the measure does not differentiate occupations with many or few occupations. Ferrie (2005) uses two tables P an d Q, and the Altham statistic to find the association between rows and columns in Table P and Q to determine whether there is occupational persistence.
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