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4 pages/≈1100 words
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APA
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Literature & Language
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English (U.S.)
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Analyze Views Of Women's Reproductive Solutions In The 19th Century (Essay Sample)

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This is the draft and use of the sources in the annotated bibliography, thanks.

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Analysis of Religious Impact on Women's Reproductive Solutions in the 19th Century
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Analysis of Religious Impact on Women's Reproductive Solutions in the 19th Century
Religion had a negative impact on women's reproductive solutions during the 19th century. Historically, such problem was rooted in religious assumptions regarding sexuality and gender (Ruether, 2006). Arousell and Carlbom (2016) argue that the impact of both culture and religion on reproductive and sexual behavior as well as healthcare utilization is widely recognized in contemporary studies. Some of the studies hold that religious impact on women's reproductive solutions reflects reproductive and sexual health outcomes (Arousell & Carlbom, 2016). Particularly, religion affiliation had a great influence on various reproductive issues including abortion, contraception, and anesthetic usage. However, there is limited literature about the influence of religion on women's views regarding reproductive solutions. This study examines the impact of religion on women's views about reproductive solutions, including contraceptive use, abortion, and anesthetic usage during the 19th century.
Religion has had a negative impact on women's reproductive and sexual health outcomes during the 19th century. According to Arousell and Carlbom (2016), the disparities in women's reproductive and sexual health outcomes can be partly attributed to religious influences. Examining the social conditions and intellectual debates that influenced the construction of women's role and sexuality, Castuera (2017) found that both the church history and the Bible were the key sources influencing Christian perception on sexuality. For instance, Christian authority had a great influence on the abortion debate in the U.S. Castuera (2017) further argues that “dogmatism and ethical certainty on abortion were rare in the past but became dominant themes in the 19th century” (p. 121). While the Bible shaped all the abortion debates, it is largely silent on the issue. As such, some of the arguments against abortion were derived from the Greek philosophers' arguments, including those of Aristotle and Plato.
Still, on the issue of women's abortion rights, Kozlowska, Beland, and Lecours (2016) examined the correlation between the policy on abortion and the national identity's political and historical construction in relation to religious symbols and norms. These researchers focused on two countries, Poland and Ireland, where women's rights to abortion were highly restricted and found that such restrictions were centered on religious constructions of national identity. Particularly, “Irish abortion policy remains extremely restrictive primarily because the Catholic underpinning of Irish national identity has not substantially changed since the 19th century” (p. 827). This statement implies that the Catholic Church was and still is strongly opposed to women's abortion rights in the country. By extension, the church teachings continue to influence and shape women's reproductive solutions in other countries across the world.
Similarly, religion also had a strong influence on the issues of childbirth, midwifery, and anesthesia usage. In the 19th century, medical experts began experimenting with the use of anesthesia during childbirth in an attempt to relieve women from labor-related pain. However, Drife (2002) argues that the use of anesthesia received widespread criticism from both the clergy and doctors, “who quoted the book of Genesis: In sorrow shalt thou bring forth children” (p. 313). This stateme

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