Teaching English and Literature (Essay Sample)
Assessment 3 (Modules 8-10)
Part 1 of 2:
Study Module 10, particularly any information relating to test construction.
Multiple choice questions construction may seem easy-but it’s not.
Design 7 multiple choice questions based on the test information below. Ensure there is a valid question (stem) and 4 valid options (choices). Also ensure that the distractors (wrong answers) are sufficiently close to the correct response as to be worthy of consideration by the candidate, i.e. make the options realistic. Do not use ‘All of the above’ or ‘None of the above’ as an option. Make sure to indicate the correct answer according to your options. Try and vary the stem construction, i.e. do not construct all of the questions in the same format, such as: ‘Which is the synonym closest in meaning to happy?’, ‘Which is the past participle of the verb go?’
Design a question testing any antonymDesign a question testing the stressed syllable in the word photographyDesign a question testing any set of minimal pairsDesign a question testing the Present Perfect tenseDesign a question related to cultureDesign a question related to multiple choice constructionDesign a question related to a discipline/student behaviour issue
There is no word limit for the part 1 of 2 assessment. However, any question + choices that exceeds 40 words or so is likely to be too lengthy.
Part 2 of 2:
According to the videos seen in Module 9, please write a short paragraph answering the following question:
What are some important aspects to keep in mind when applying pedagogical planning?
Paragraph length for part 2 of 2: 50 - 75 words
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3. Teaching Large Multi-Level Classes
3.1 What Do These Look Like?
Some teachers view a large class as 15 students or so but wait until they have 30 or 40
students – then they’ll know what a large class is. So, it’s all relative.
The term ‘multi-level is a lot easier to define, as this term is used to identify any group
of learners who differ from one another in one or more significant ways, e.g. age, level,
prior experience, degree of literacy etc.
In many adult EFL classes there are even more variables that affect the level structure
within the class. Because of funding constraints, learner scheduling difficulties, and
programme logistics, some programmes will place learners of all levels into one or two
Such classes often include speakers of many native languages, some of which use the
Roman alphabet, some of which do not (Mandarin, Arabic).
Learners may also have varying degrees of literacy in their first language as well as in
Other factors that add to a classroom’s heterogeneity, or diversity, and the rate of
 Type and amount of a learner's previous education
 Learning style preference
 Learners’ learning goals
 Learner expectations of appropriate classroom activities
 Culture, age, gender and, in some contexts, the religion of each learner
3.2 Cons and Pros
For some teachers, their first impression upon hearing they will have to teach large or
multi-level classes is usually not a positive one. Teachers usually focus on these
 They are difficult to control
 It’s difficult to find suitable material to satisfy the differences in learners
 They’re unsure as to whether their students are all learning effectively
However some other teachers view it differently. They feel:
 There’s enjoyment in watching all the students mingling, getting to know each
other, making friendship and learning about the different values and cultures of
 These large, multi-level classes provide the teacher with a greater opportunity
for creativity, innovation and personal development.
 It’s impossible to get around everyone so students can help by teaching each
other and working together. They feel this peer teaching and collaboration are
surprisingly effective, fostering co-operation and student autonomy
If you have already gained experience in classroom management with smaller classes
with less levels of difference, and everything has been fine, there shouldn’t be much to
worry about. You will have gained the transferable skills which you can apply to the
larger classes. Yes, you may need to tweak a few things, and you may need to do a bit
more planning, but you’ll be fine. We don’t quite see how a teacher who has gained the
skills in class control, material development, monitoring and ensuring effective learning,
just loses those skills because the class becomes bigger and the differing levels are
You’ll make up your own mind if the time comes. New teachers would not normally be
put in charge of a large, multi-level class until they have gained substantial experience.
But reflect on all of this, just in case.
3.3 Effective Planning and Grouping Strategies
Planning for multi-level classes requires the ability to juggle many different elements.
In particular, teachers must provide a range of activities that address the learning
styles, skill levels and specific learning objectives of each individual.
Teachers can use a variety of techniques and grouping strategies and a selection of
self-access materials (i.e. materials which students access on their own without little or
any guidance from the teacher) such as crossword puzzles, texts, computer software
and games) to help all learners be successful, comfortable, and productive for at least
a portion of each class.
However, planning for all the varying levels, styles and learner expectations is time-
consuming and the classroom management can be a bit more taxing.
Remember! The alternative to this effort -planning and using activities that meet the
needs of only those learners whose skills fall somewhere in the middle - will frustrate
those with lower skills, and bore the more advanced learners.
When planning and teaching the multi-level EFL class, as with any adult language
class, the teacher must remember that learner perceptions of what constitutes sound
language learning may not match those of the teacher.
However, the teacher's enthusiasm and encouragement can usually motivate learners
who resist unfamiliar and non-traditional classroom activities to participate fully in the
But where there is a mismatch between learner and teacher perceptions of useful
activities, teachers should be prepared to include activities that meet learner
Certain factors should also be considered in setting up group and pair activities,
including differences in age, social background, country of origin, educational
background, and English ability.
Some learners might not be comfortable in groups with other learners they consider to
be more prominent or of higher status.
And in some contexts, men, for cultural reasons, may not be so willing to take part in
groups where women are the leaders.
Although the teacher can often encourage reluctant learners to try new activities,
sensitivity to potential difficulties arising from group and pair work is necessary. Class
discussions of cultural and personal differences in learning styles and interaction
patterns may help to overcome initial resistance.
Whole group work
Here are some tasks/activities which are appropriate initially for whole-class work and
this would then lead to follow up work set at different degrees of difficulty or different
student group requirements (e.g. more practice in writing)
Class project: The whole group can participate in a class project to create a finished
product (such as a text, bulletin board, or collage), where each learner completes a
part of the task based on individual abilities and interests.
 Reading comic strips or photo stories
 Listening to audio or viewing video
 Learning songs
 Brainstorming on topics of interest.
Small group work
This grouping provides opportunities for learners to use their language skills and is
often less intimidating than whole group work.
Small groups can be set up according to interest or ability, and need not be equal in
size or permanent.
Heterogeneous groups are made up of learners who have disparate skills. Cross-ability
grouping allows stronger learners to help others and maximises complementary learner
strengths. Activities suitable for cross-ability groups are jigsaw activities, board games,
creation of posters, lists and illustrations, and multimedia projects.
Homogeneous groups are made up of learners who have roughly equal skills (for
example, all are literate or are orally fluent). Activities often suitable for like-ability
groups are problem-solving, sequencing, and
Pairs have the greatest opportunity to use communicative skills.
Like-ability pairs succeed when partners' roles are interchangeable or equally difficult.
Activities for homogeneous pairs include information gaps, dialogues, role plays and
Cross-ability pairs work best when partners are given different roles and heavier
demands are placed on the more proficient learner. Some examples are activities
where one dictates and one transcribes, interviews where one questions and one
answers, and role plays where one learner has a larger role than the other.
In this dynamic, the more proficient partner can also play the role of mentor, helping the
less proficient partner in times where he or she may need attention and the teacher is
tied up with other pairs or groups.
When learners are doing independent activities in the multi-level classroom, using self-
access materials can enable students to take responsibility for choosing work
appropriate to their individual levels and interests.
A self-access component includes activities from all skill areas as well as vocabulary,
grammar, and pronunciation exercises.
With self-access materials, each task is set up so that learners need minimal, if any,
assistance from the teacher to accomplish the activity.
Directions are clear and answers (when applicable) are provided on the back of the
activity allowing learners to informally evaluate their own work without teacher
When used regularly in the classroom, self-access time can foster a relaxed
environment where learners decide how and when to interact with one another, with
their teacher, and with English. process
writing.the other students. There’s a greater sense of community.
Teaching English and Literature
1. Which of the following is an antonym of the term "slothful;?
2. Choose the correct stressing syllable for photography in this sentence. Photography is the practice of making pictures.
3. In phonology, words tend to sound the same. Which of the pairs listed below is a similar pair?
a) maid â€“ made
b) kite - night
c) base â€“ phase
d) wise â€“ rice
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