Post Independence Civil War In Mozambique Question (Essay Sample)
Answer two questions separately.source..
Question 1: Post-independence civil war in Mozambique
National Resistance (Renamo) was created in 1975 after the end of Portuguese colonialism to fight the socialist ruling liberation Front of Mozambique (Frelimo) (Seibert, 253). Renamo was anti-communist and during the Cold War, foreign powers tried interfering in the internal political struggles to influence political outlook of different countries. Zimbabwe then called Rhodesia launched attacks into Mozambique in 1976 for economic and political reasons with the attacks beginning in 1977, and by 1992 when the war ended more than one million people had died and four million displaced (Seibert 254). Renamo had waged war using guerilla tactic and brought terror and violence, but the army was trained in conventional warfare and was unable to fight effectively, in the end the rebels lay down their arms, to begin the peace process in 1992 (Beckett, 139).
Anti-colonial wars are closely linked with the pre-colonial and colonial history, as unity and disunity in Mozambique like in other African countries depends on the history of these nations and not just the vagaries of nationalism. The FRELIMO founding father Eduardo Mondlane was unable to achieve nationalist unity, and even the war was a continuation of nationalistic politics. In 1980, Zimbabwe gained independence and white rule South Africa then provided more support to Renamo as it sought to contain Frelimo, because of its socialist policies and even links with the black dominated ANC in South Africa (Seibert, 263-264).
After independence, Frelimo had replaced many local chiefs with administrators many who did not speak the local languages especially in rural areas and this created discontent, and this was further complicated when these administrators were family from the south (Seibert, 268). Southern dominance created tension and worsened regional relations that were already tense during the colonial times. Frelimo lead
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