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Philosophy (Essay Sample)

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Phil 2P00: Final Essay Instructions and Question 1. The essay has to be no less than 1400 words in length (approx 5 pages double space) not including the bibliography/works cited. 2. Please use size 12 Times New Roman Font and include a word count on the first page. 3. No quotations, either from the text or from lectures, are permitted. This essay tests your ability to paraphrase concepts and arguments. It will be marked for accuracy, clarity and coherence. This is not an exercise in creative writing. Do not include any biographical details about Socrates or Plato. 4. No external sources are required. You may reference your textbook in any style as long as it is consistent. 5. Please submit hard copies of the paper. It is your responsibility to retain an electronic copy of the paper. If your paper cannot be located in the Philosophy Department, you will be asked to resubmit it. Essay Question Using the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo and the Republic to develop an extended summary of Socratic ethics. This summary should include, among other things, a discussion his views on virtue, right and wrong actions, the polis and its laws, the role of philosophy. Also consider the ethical relevance, if any, of his philosophical method. source..
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Philosophy
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Philosophy
Use the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo and the Republic to develop an extended summary of Socratic ethics. This summary should include, among other things, a discussion his views on virtue, right and wrong actions, the polis and its laws, the role of philosophy. Also, consider the ethical relevance, if any, of his philosophical method.
Euthyphro
According to Altman (2010), Plato’s dialog Euthyphro is about a discussion that Socrates had with Euthyphro, a man who was reputed to being wise. The discussion was on piety; that virtue is seen as a manner of living, which fulfills an individual’s duty to humanity and to the gods. The issue on the virtue of piety is of more interest as Socrates is accused of impiety and is about to stand trial in Athens to determine his innocence. On the other hand, Euthyphro is taking his father to court over murder charges. With his father’s command, a man had been bound then thrown into a ditch for killing a domestic servant. He later died due to exposure and hunger, and Euthyphro believed his father was responsible for his death. Altman (2010) continues that Socrates engaged Euthyphro regarding the meaning of piety, who gave several unsatisfactory answers. As they started the discussion, Socrates wanted to know from Euthyphro the meaning of piety, who answered that it is acting as he was acting in taking to court someone who has done wrong, even though he was a family member. Socrates agreed with him that personal relationships should never be allowed to prevent one from performing his duty; however, he still was not satisfied with the answer because an example of virtue of piety did not equal its definition according to him. He asked him once more the meaning of piety so as to know if the charge Meletus was bringing against him was logical. His answer was that piety is what pleased the gods while impiety is that which does not. Socrates was still unconvinced because it was unclear what makes something pleasing to the gods and if it can be pleasing to all, not some of them. Euthyphro further adds that piety is that which is pleasing to all gods, giving an example that they all agree murder is wrong. Socrates on the other hand argues that the motive and circumstances in which the killing occurred makes a significant difference concerning the moral quality of the act. Plato pointed out that the two did not agree about the nature of the virtue of piety.
In Euthyphro, Socrates states that the role of philosophy is to question the answers asked and not to answer the questions, and that is what he was doing with regard to Euthyphro and the meaning of the virtue of piety. Socrates as a philosopher was using dialectic technique in engaging Euthyphro that is pointing out the inconsistencies, as well as contradictions in statements made without proper thought (Altman, 2010). He is accused of teaching false doctrines hence corrup...
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