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Night Work and the Risk of Cancer among Men - Assignment 3 (Essay Sample)

Assignment 3: Research Paper Critique Select and Review a journal article written within the past 10 years selected from an epidemiology journal (e.g. American Journal of Epidemiology) The review should include the following components: 1. A synopsis of the article (Introduction/Methods/Results/Discussion) 2. A discussion of the article's strengths and limitations 3. The article's public health implication The following questions should be answered during the presentation: A) Why did the scientists perform the study (i.e. brief description of background)? B) What was the hypothesis (or hypotheses) under investigation? C) What were the major techniques used in the study? D) What were the major results, did they support or negate the hypothesis, and do they point to further/future studies? E) Why did you choose this particular article to review? Was it interesting, informative, clearly written, or none of the above? All credit will be given for your honest opinions. Must meet writing guidelines and be in APA format. Must include a title page and references must be listed and meet minimal requirements. APA guidelines source..
Night Work and the Risk of Cancer among Men Name: Institution: Working at night comes with its own set of challenges; this article tries to establish if there is any link, between the night shift lighting conditions and the prevalence of developing cancer in men. Basically, working at night, requires a light source as it is dark. When one is exposed to light while in the dark, there is suppression of a hormone called Melatonin (Parent, Zein, Rousseau, Pintos & Siemiatycki, 2012). During the middle of the night, this suppression takes to the peak. The suppression of this hormone due to light exposure does inhibit or interrupt with the circadian rhythms, which leads to increased production of the reproductive hormones, while at the same time reducing the pineal gland’s anti-cancer effects. These physiological changes caused by exposure to light in the dark, can lead to tumor development. These findings are based on the evidence that have been attested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, although much of the evidence is based experiment rather than epidemiology (American Cancer Society, 2013). In the beginning the study was to concentrate on the occupational hazards that would lead to cancer in men, but later narrowed to the effects of light at night. The study procedures were accredited by the ethics committees and all the participants filed their consent. The study set the times specifics of the night shifts as at 1 AM to 2 AM. The participants had to work in a job that required him to put in one hour between 1 and 2 AM for a period not less than six months (Parent et al., 2012). The total number of years within any given job, put in at night, gave the cumulative index. The participants had to be between the ages of 35-70 years and also had to be residing within the greater Montreal section. The study focused on all the patients that had been diagnosed with pathological cancer, between the year 1979 and 1985 all of whom totaled to 4576, but only 3730 were interviewed successfully. 23 sites of the anatomy were tested and the most common cancers that were found in the patients included the cancer of lung, colon, rectum, pancreases, esophagus, prostate, bladder, melanoma and the stomach. To come up with the successful candidates for the study, the electoral list was used as it is frequently updated in the province of Quebec. To avoid bias, control groups were chosen at random within the same age group and geographical area. 740 participants were picked initially, but only 533 out of the total were actually interviewed successfully. Data collection was done through face to face interviews, which took approximately two and a half hours. So as to determine whether the night shift had any effect on the patients, the interview collected information on the job descriptions, life styles and socio-demographic characteristics of the participants (Parent et al., 2012). To analyze the data obtained, different regression models were ...
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