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Literature Review: Leadership & Success of an Organization (Essay Sample)


I will attache five articles, please summarize them each in less than 150 words. you need to tell three things about each article. 1) what is it about. 2) how the study conducted. 3) what are the findings of the study. Please see the example below:
Alhadab et al. (2016) conducted a comparative analysis of the two types of earnings management (accrual-based and real activity) around the IPO in two different regulatory systems. These systems were the Alternative Investment Market (AIM) and the UK Main Market. In terms of listing requirements, the AIM is considered a lightly regulated market when compared to the UK Main Market. The study took a sample of 571 companies that went public on the AIM or UK Main Market between 1998 and 2008. The study found that IPO companies engaged in accrual-based and real activity earnings management in the IPO year, but not prior to this. Furthermore, sales-based and accrual-based earnings management were more intense in the AIM than in the UK Main Market. Alhadab et al. (2016) findings are consistent with prior research (Enomoto et al, 2015) in that regularity environment has negative relationship with of earnings management.


Literature Review
Literature Review
Leadership is considered the most important factor that determines the success of an organization, due to its importance several theories and leadership model have been proposed. The paper reviews seven articles, including the key content on leadership. In an article by AlMazrouei & Zacca, (2015). Expatriate leadership competencies and performance: a qualitative study. In this article, the authors investigate some of the qualities of leadership required for expatriate managers working in UAE. The article identifies how additional skill of expatriate leaders can be developed and how to enhance their ability to manage staff.
A qualitative study was conducted through sampling methods to gather data through interviews of expatriate leaders within different organizations in the UAE. The used sampling to select participant across the private and public sector. Face to face interviews combined with telephone interviews was conducted for 60 to 90 minutes. The study revealed that the key factors included communication ability, teamwork qualities and the ability to handle local; national were important qualities leaders need to possess.
Similarly an article by Elenkov & Manev, (2009). Senior expatriate leadership's effects on innovation and the role of cultural intelligence highlight the important role of expatriate managers within multinational cooperation because of their ability to transfer both expertise and skill and technology. The authors believe that senior expatriate managers need to possess certain skills that positively influence levels of adoption of innovation. Cultural intelligence is seen as an influential factor to improve organization innovativeness.
The article presented a quantitative study using the GLOBE project sampling, the study tested the hypotheses by interviewing senior expatriate managers, and 695 subordinate of 27 companies who are members of the European Union. Additional data was collected from government and industry archival data. The study results revealed that there is a direct influence of senior expatriate leaders who possess visionary and transformation leadership to improve innovation. Cultural intelligence has an effect on senior expatriate leadership and organizational innovation.
Sambharya, (1996). Foreign experience of top management teams and international diversification strategies of US multinational corporations presents the role of the top management team to test the theory that foreign experience affects international diversification strategies .The author uses regression analysis to review the level of heterogeneity and determine the number of managers with foreign experience. 54 multinational corporations were reviewed. The study was to determine whether the international experience is important for TMT of the multinat

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