Impressionism is a movement in painting. Literature & Language Essay (Essay Sample)
Chapter 5: Question 2
Identity theory is an assertion that explains the distinct relationship between the mind and the body. Particularly, the theory states that some types of human mental states are literally similar with some types of human’s brain states. The expressions of matter and mind depicts a strong similarity despite both being logically distinguishable. In other words, mental states such as pain and thoughts are directly connected to certain physical state in the human body.
The dual aspect theory is similar to identify theory as both stresses that the mental states possess an ontology that is similar to the physical states. However, dual aspect theory holds that reality is in form of matter, but its existence in either neutral or mental states.
Identity theory is also similar to Merleau Ponty’s notion of a unified body as both theories holds that the body and the mind works in correlation and could not be disentangled from each other. Merleau Ponty believes that the body is the key site, which explores the world before sending receptive signals to the brain to create consciousness as the source of information. One of the difference is that, unlike the identity theory which revealed that there is no close cognitive relationship between the mind and the body. In addition, Merleau Ponty’s notions placed much focus on the perception and shortcomings as the major source of expounding on the correlation between the body and the mind in relation to the world’s experience.
Both Husserl and Merleau Ponty agreed with Ryle’s rejection on Descartes’s assertion on dualism in different accounts. First, Husserl’s rejected dualism on the ground that consciousness and reality have no natural consensus as some functions like thoughts can split the consensus between mind and body into shreds.
Also, Merleau Ponty supports Ryle’s rejection on dualism the integration of mind and body to create dualism is not perfect since the mind is is made up of structural amalgamations that are controlled by the aspects of life and matter which is embodied. The structural integration of the mind is fragile and incomplete hence making dualism of the mind and body to be incomplete sometimes.
Chapter 6: Question 1
According’s to Kant’s view on self, the actual difference between the transcendental ego and empirical ego is that, while the former is subjective and responsible for creating a unity of empirical self-consciousness that fights to exclude individualism, the latter is objective an and the self of each person which defines the personality and the locus on an individual through means such reflection and awareness that creates individualism.
Kant needs both transcendental and empirical notions to explain the ambiguity existing on the idea of subject existing between the empirical self and the transcendental self. In addition, The two models helps Kant to constitute the factuality existing of humans objectivity and subjectivity since both are inseparable as subjective reality and objective reality are integrated to create actual reality.
The enemy of selfhood is social identity and extreme conformity to the masses because individuals tend to use the herd and social aspects as scapegoats to conceal their true identity According to Nietzsche and Kierkegaard, the herds and social parameters include elements such as religion, morals and culture. The two philosophers believes that a person’s selfhood is destroyed by social identity because of the pressure to meet the society’s expectation and conformity to the set rules and guidelines. Individualism damages when a person is compelled and obligated to veer from his or her personal believes and habits to match with the demand of the masses.
Sometimes I identify myself socially by undertaking activities that seem untrue to myself because of the desire to match the surroundings. For example, as a young person and a student, I struggle with the dynamism of the world such as the fashion trends, and political affiliation by foregoing my standpoints to be socially identified with friends and school mates.
The feeling is exhaustive since the pressure to conform to the dynamism of the world for one not to be considered conventional because it calls for a sacrifice of time and sometimes expensive to acquire the social identity.
Too much conformity to social guidelines and demands automatically destroys the true identity of an individual. For a person to be identified in a particular group, they ought to give up their beliefs, personality and stand points. The action is becomes detrimental when the societal demand constitute immorality or evil deeds.
Chapter 7: Question 1
Hard determinism asserts that humans’ decision making and action are determined or influenced by the world experiences. In other words, individuals’ actions are made based on the law of cause and effect such that their actions and decision making are wholly influenced by their preceding action. On the other hand, Soft determinism claims that individual’s actions and decisions are partially influenced by the principles of nature as individuals still have the freedom to make in depended choices and decisions. In other words, whereas under hard determinism ones’ freedom is wholly determined by past actions, soft determinism allows an individual to act outside their past experiences while ignoring the existing determinants.
Indeterminism claims that some of the humans’ deeds and actions are as a result of pure chance events instead of emanating from causes that necessitated a particular effect. The actions and decisions are considered indeterminism because their occurrence was not predetermined. Indeterminism is just as challenging as hard determinism because it tends to overlook the nature of human beings such as character and personality that can predetermine some actions and choices.
Predestination in Islam means Allah (God) has granted human beings a free will which is is not subjected to law of cause-and-effects. The choices and actions that individuals makes will not determine their destiny as it already determined by Allah. The concept is similar to Christianity notion, which claims that the actions and decisions of individuals are all within the knowledge of God.
There is a tangled relationship between moral responsibility and freedom among human beings. Since humans have moral responsibility in all their actions, this grants them the free will to act without restriction. Individuals perform some actions freely because they have a genuine moral responsibility attached to every of those actions. The genuine moral responsibility and genuine freedom of will are inseparable and an occurrence of one means the other existed as well.
According to Aristotle claims that the fact that humans are answerable to their actions and choices, does not mean they have absolute freedom of will because their choices of actions ought to foreknowledge God. Similarly, Skinner holds that humans do not perform all their actions in unqualified freedom because some are determined by individuals’ internal and external forces. On the other hand, Sartre asserts that most of the actions are purely under human control and they bounded by the duty to be answerable every time.
Impressionism is a movement in painting that could be considered the first modern art movement that was distinct. It is a movement that is associated with the 19th century and was characterized by thin and small brush strokes, movement in the paintings, visual angles that were unusual, human emotions, accurate color qualities and the depiction of light in relation to the subjects in the painting along with the lighting. This is a movement that originated in France in the 1860s with the influence of likes of Claude Monet. It influence spread through Europe and finally to the United States. It developed as a result of a group of artists rejecting government sanctions on exhibitions and salons. Other than the government there was also powerful art institutions that were objected to the ideas. At the time France was under an oppressive regime and poverty was rife. As such, artists concentrated on nudes and nature paintings. With the likes of Gustave Courbet who confronted the official Parisian establishments in art. His bold approach gave confidence to other artists to challenge the status quo.
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