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The Data Collection Method and Measurements (Essay Sample)

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Interpretation Please read the following article: Cummings, S.M. (2002). Predictors of psychological well-being among assisted-living residents. Health & Social Work, 27(4), 293-303. Please respond to the following questions using these subheadings: 1. Briefly describe the: • Study design • The sample • The data collection method and measurements 2. Bivariate methods: • Describe the bivariate techniques employed in data analysis and the results of the bivariate analyses. • In particular, please look at table 3 and identify the correlations between: life satisfaction and depression, perceived social support and depression, functional impairment and depression, functional impairment and life satisfaction, social activities and life satisfaction. • Please indicate if these correlations are significant and the α level (p-value). 3. Define the dependent and independent variables 4. Describe the regression analyses 5. Predictors: • Which predictors emerged as significant predictors of the outcome(s) in the stage 2 models? • How do these compare to the stage 3 models? • Why do you think the results on the relationship between functional ability and depression, and self rated health and life satisfaction were different in stage 2 and stage 3 results? • How do these results compare with the correlation analyses? • Which factor remained a significant predictor of outcome(s) in the full models (stage 3 models). Note: Hierarchical regression consists of series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses in which one or more new predictors are added to those used in the previous analysis. The decision concerning which variables to add at each point in the series is made by the investigator. Case Assignment Expectations: Use information from the assigned journal article to provide your responses to the specific questions that I have posed above. LENGTH: Approximately 3 pages typed and double-spaced Extra reading: StatSoft, Inc. (2007). Electronic textbook StatSoft-Regression and ANOVA/MANOVA. Retrieved September 23, 2011, from http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html Research Methods Glossaries: University of Alberta, School of Medicine and Dentistry. (2007). Clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine glossary. Retrieved September 23, 2011, from http://www.vetmed.wsu.edu/courses-jmgay/GlossClinEpiEBM.htm#General%20Terms%20for%20Epidemiology%20&%20Evidence-based%20Medicine Learning objectives: Describe ANOVA, N-Way ANOVA, ANCOVA, linear regression, and logistic regression, and identify types of research questions for which each is used

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Content:
Interpretation
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Study Design
This is a non-interventional observational study design. The researcher observes and collects the information systematically without changing the participants being observed.
The sample
The sample for this study came from the southeastern part of the United States. They included members of a moderate-size from a corporately owned assisted living residence in a large urban setting. The staff who participated in the study arranged for the social and educational activities and assisted the residents with ADLs and IADLs. Every resident in the facility was included except those who presented with who had cognitive impairments and those residing in the Alzheimer's wing. There were 77 residents within the non-dementia section with 10 of them being eliminated from the study due to the cognitive impairments or communication problems. Only 57 out of the remaining 67 completed the questionnaire.
The Data Collection Method and Measurements
Data was collected by face-to-face interviews that were done through questionnaires by trained research assistants and lasted approximately 20 minutes. Depression and life-satisfaction scales were administered to measure the residents' psychological well-being. In addition, social support and health status scales were administered to measure the respective parameters. Operationalisation of depression was done using a modified version of the Center for Epidemiological Study Depression that constituted of 19 items. The scale is designed to briefly identify symptoms of depression in gerontology that comprised of a 0.83 Cronbach's alpha for the 10 items.
The Life Satisfaction Scale Z (LSIZ) with 10 dichotomous items was used to measure life satisfaction while 11 dichotomous items that inquired if residents required assistance for functional activities was used to measure the degree of functional impairment. The degree of impairment was measured by the number of ADLs and IADLs that the residents needed help with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.83. The health status of the residents was measured by requiring residents to rate their physical health status of the past six months based on a five point Likert scale. The perceived social support by the residents was measured by a standardized scale, a modified Perceived Social Support Scale, Likert scale rating of satisfaction with friendships and social contacts and satisfaction with their living state. In addition, a measurement of the average in the facility's activities was also measured.
Bivariate Techniques Employed in Data Analysis
To assess the significance of the single-order relationships among the psychological well-being, demographic, and variables, the bivariate statistics were utilized. Furthermore, to determine the independent variables related significantly to the variables related to the psychological wellbeing, the Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated.
Results of the Bi...
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