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Cross sectional, case control and cohort studies (Essay Sample)

Please use: Opioid is a type of medication that is given to relieve pain. The drug is responsible for stopping nerves from sending and receiving the feeling of pain in patients' controlling pain. Opioid is administered to patients to relieve pain because pain can alter their physical and emotional health such as depression and sleep (Truven Health Analytics Inc, 2013). This medication thus, controls and manages patients' pain, thereby, improving their mood and ability to carry out daily activities. Socioeconomic status has been seen to play a major role in administration of opioid in emergency rooms to patients with severe pain if they are black, poor or less educated in comparison to affluent patients. Racial and ethnic disparities which have been documented in scientific literature indicate that poverty, income and level of education have been influencing the prescription of opioid pain medication (University of Rochester Medical Center, 2013). Reports indicate that patients who visit national hospital ambulatory care where opioid was prescribed are identified by use of zip code for their socioeconomic status. This calls for a need to increase awareness to the public health in order to provide consistency and effective treatments to all citizens regardless of their race or ethnicity to improve delivery of health care. Black race and Hispanic ethnic group are less likely to be prescribed opioids for an equal level of pain to white people. Moreover, patients that reside from poor neighborhoods are not treated with opioids unlike those from affluent areas. The report indicated that patients from affluent neighborhoods get prescriptions 49% of the time for moderate to severe pain unlike the lower income patients who get prescription at 39% (University of Rochester Medical Center, 2013). The disparity is also evident in various poverty levels with the poorest patients having the least likelihood of getting opioid prescriptions for pain. The rationales for these disparities are complex and call for additional investigation in an effort of improving delivery of quality health care. TO ANSWER: Why is this a public health concern? Does any of this speak to this week's learning objectives? (THIS WEEK'S OBJECTIVES BELOW) - Examine the concepts of cohort studies - Identify how one would select a study population - Explain potential biases in cohort studies - Explore Case control and Cross sectional studies - Describe the matching approach - Analyze the issues related to recall problem - Explain nested case- control case studies and cross sectional studie source..

Cross sectional, case control and cohort studies
Administration of opioid helps to relieve pain among patients, but the use of the medication is a public health concern because of bias in use of the medication. In essence, the medication has the same function like morphine, but there are questions on how effective the medication is administered to minorities and people of lower social classes. This notion emanates from studies which show, that medical practitioners are less likely to use opioid for Black and Hispanic patients, as opposed to White patients. Equally, people of lower social classes are less likely to receive the medication in cases where they most need it in comparison to wealthier patients.
Cohort studies help to analyze information, and not to describe like in ...
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