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Compare And Contrast DNA And RNA: What Do You Need To Know (Essay Sample)


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What you need to know about DNA and RNA
Our body is composed of millions of cells working together to help us walk, talk, think, see, digest, and many other functions that make us alive. These cells are governed by the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) where genetic informations are stored. In order for the DNA to control the activities of the cell, it must undergo the process of transcription and translation respectively. The other nucleic acid, the ribonucleic acid (RNA) becomes active during this process. Transcription is the process wherein a part of the DNA template is copied into a messenger RNA (mRNA). So, this mRNA is translated into a protein with the help of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA). Proteins carry out thousands of processes that take place in the body such as cell to cell communication, transport of compounds, and repair of tissues. It shows that protein synthesis is vital process in the cells. So now let's look closer at the similarities and differences of DNA and RNA and reasons why do not have one central repository of DNA.
How are DNA and RNA similar and different?
There are four major classes biological macromolecules in a living organism. These are the carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. In this section, we will focus on the similarities and differences between the two nucleic acid – DNA and RNA.
Long chains of nucleotides compose both the DNA and RNA. Although DNA is considerably longer than RNA. These nucleotides are the monomers of this macromolecule. They are made up of a phosphate group, pentose sugar, and nitrogenous bases. One difference between the two nucleic acid is the type of pentose sugar present. RNA has a ribose sugar which contains a hydroxyl (-OH) group on the 2' carbon. DNA has a deoxyribose sugar which lacks the -OH group. Thus, the name deoxyribonucleic acid.
The monomer of these nucleic acids are also different in their nitrogenous bases. Purines and pyrimidines are the nitrogenous bases that make up the DNA and RNA.

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