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Child Abuse Across Culture (Essay Sample)
Child Abuse across Culture Child abuse is undoubtedly a global public health issue. In response to the recently released UN Secretary General's Study on Violence Against Children, the World Health Organization has launched an unprecedented effort to prevent child maltreatment in all countries of the world. The following articles speak to the experiences of children of different cultures and the need for public health professionals to play an active role in educating parents of all cultures about child abuse. After reading these articles, please respond to the following questions in a 2-3 page essay. Your responses should be based upon your review of these papers as well as additional scholarly materials identified in the course of your research. Your Task Edwards, S. (2006, October 12). Many cultures accept 'shocking' child abuse. Leader Post, p. A.3. Massey-Stokes, M., & Lanning, B. (2004). The role of CSHPs in preventing child abuse and neglect. The Journal of School Health, 74(6), 193-194. 1. Identify a form of child abuse referenced in the first of these articles, and discuss the role of the health educator in preventing this specific type of abuse. 2. In the U.S., a majority of parents admit to spanking their children on a regular basis, yet in Scandinavian countries, corporal punishment is banned in both public and private spheres. Can this difference be attributed to culture? Please explain. Be sure to support your response with evidence from the scholarly literature. READING1 Many cultures accept 'shocking' child abuse; [Final Edition] Steven Edwards. Leader Post. Regina, Sask.: Oct 12, 2006. pg. A.3 Abstract (Summary) The United Nations Study on Violence Against Children says seven per cent of the world's boys under age 18, and 14 per cent of the world's girls have been raped. That translates into 73 million and 150 million respectively. It also estimates 275 million children worldwide witness violence in the home each year, while it cites a survey that found 53,000 youngsters aged 17 and younger were murdered in 2002 alone. Almost all of the UN's 192 member states have approved the world body's 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, which says countries must pass laws ensuring children are treated with dignity. Almost half have approved a 2000 "protocol" to the treaty that says world governments must end the sale of children in their countries, and protect the young from people who would turn them into prostitutes or use them in pornography. » Jump to indexing (document details) Full Text (460 words) (Copyright The Leader-Post (Regina) 2006) UNITED NATIONS -- A shocking level of violence against children is documented in the first-ever global mapping of the issue by the United Nations. Released today, the landmark study shows much of the sexual and physical abuse is both hidden and approved in many cultures -- meaning statistics on the numbers of young victims is almost certainly far higher. The other implication is international treaties guaranteeing the rights of children are, for millions of youngsters around the world, mere words on a piece of paper. While Canada and other developed countries have, for the most part, extensive government programs aimed at trying to minimize the level of violence against children, similar efforts in much of the rest of the world are lagging or non-existent. The United Nations Study on Violence Against Children says seven per cent of the world's boys under age 18, and 14 per cent of the world's girls have been raped. That translates into 73 million and 150 million respectively. It also estimates 275 million children worldwide witness violence in the home each year, while it cites a survey that found 53,000 youngsters aged 17 and younger were murdered in 2002 alone. Amid the statistics, the report presents the chilling words of some of the world's abused youngsters. "With these two hands, my mother holds me, cares for me. This, I love," says one young girl from East Asia. "With these two hands, my mother hits me. This I hate." In a section on the excessive violence imprisoned children face in some countries, a Palestinian boy speaks of his experience. "Sometimes, one day in prison feels like a year," he says. "But after 10 days, you get used to it, and you don't cry as much." Almost all of the UN's 192 member states have approved the world body's 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, which says countries must pass laws ensuring children are treated with dignity. Almost half have approved a 2000 "protocol" to the treaty that says world governments must end the sale of children in their countries, and protect the young from people who would turn them into prostitutes or use them in pornography. Yet, the study reports between 100 million and 140 million women and girls worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation or cutting, which is a practice particularly prevalent in Muslim countries. It also cites figures for 2000 that show 5.7 million children were in forced or bonded labour in that year. Another 1.8 million had been made to work as prostitutes or in the pornography industry. The number of child victims of trafficking, meanwhile, totalled 1.2 million. While extreme violence against children hits the headlines, the study says children around the world face "routine" violence that has life-long implications. READING2 The Role of CSHPs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect Marilyn Massey-Stokes, Beth Lanning. The Journal of School Health. Kent: Aug 2004. Vol. 74, Iss. 6; pg. 193, 2 pgs Abstract (Summary) Child abuse remains a horrific public health and social problem in the US. Boys and girls are almost equally likely to experience neglect and physical abuse, however, girls are four times more likely to experience sexual abuse. In 2000, nearly four children died each day from abuse or neglect. Massy-Stokes and Lanning discuss on child abuse and neglect. » Jump to indexing (document details) Full Text (1794 words) Copyright American School Health Association Aug 2004 Child abuse remains a horrific public health and social problem in the United States. In 2002, approximately 2.6 million referrals concerning approximately 5 million children were reported to Child Protective Services for suspected child abuse and neglect. Approximately 903,000 children were confirmed victims of child maltreatment. Of these, 61% suffered neglect, including medical neglect; 19% were physically abused; 10% were sexually abused; and 7% suffered emotional abuse. American Indian, Alaska Native, and African American children had the highest victimization rates when compared to the national population.1 Boys and girls are almost equally likely to experience neglect and physical abuse. However, girls are four times more likely to experience sexual abuse.2 In addition, children with disabilities are mistreated at 1.7 times the rate for other children.3 Nevertheless, on average, victimization rate relates inversely to a child's age.1 For example, children aged 0 to 3 experience the highest rate of neglect. Though children aged 0 to 5 comprise 25% of children in the United States, they account for 85% of fatalities from child maltreatment.4 In 2000, nearly four children died each day from abuse or neglect. Children under age five account for 80% of reported fatalities, contending with congenital anomalies for the second-leading cause of death for children aged 1 to 4 in the United States.5 However, fatalities due to maltreatment go seriously under-reported due to inadequate investigation, lack of information sharing between investigators and agencies, and antiquated reporting systems that fail to document maltreatment as an official cause of death.6 Deaths labeled as accidents, child homicides, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome may be attributed to child maltreatment if more comprehensive investigations were conducted.7 Research also documented a link between maltreated children and a range of medical, emotional, psychological, and behavioral problems.8,9 Costs of this human suffering cannot be measured. Economic costs associated with child abuse and neglect are staggering as well. Conservative estimates suggest the Unites States spends approximately $94 billion per year on direct and indirect costs of child maltreatment.8 TYPES OF CHILD MALTREATMENT Child abuse and neglect are defined by the Federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which sets a foundation for each state to describe offenses within civil and criminal codes.10 CAPTA recognizes four major types of maltreatment. Physical Abuse. Inflicting of physical injury from punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking, or otherwise harming a child. Child Neglect. Failing to provide for the child's basic needs including physical, educational, or emotional. Sexual Abuse. Performing sexual acts ranging from fondling genitals and exhibitionism to intercourse, rape, sodomy, and exploitation through prostitution or production of pornographic materials. Emotional Abuse. Acts and omissions of parents or care-givers that caused or could lead to behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or mental disorders. Emotional abuse underlies other forms of abuse.10 PREVENTION THROUGH CSHPs Most prevention efforts target individual parents, families, or children to change attitudes and behavior that contribute to risk.11 Bronfenbrenner's12 ecological model provides a powerful tool in preventing child maltreatment.13,14 This model views the child's environment as a series of interconnected levels, with the child at the center of a circle of influence.13 Each level must be addressed to effectively prevent child maltreatment. Within the model, schools play a critical role identifying and preventing child abuse and neglect.13-16 Berson15 says, "Schools have an important responsibility in the protection of children and serve as the system that bridges the family and community into a social network for the child." School personnel must identify child abuse and neglect and report suspected child maltreatment accurately and promptly. Schools also can create an ethos of caring and support where all children feel safe, valued, and loved. A broad evidence base supports the positive relationship between CSHPs and enhanced education outcomes.17 A CSHP includes eight components - health education; physical education; health services; nutrition services; counseling, psychological, and social services; healthy school environment; health promotion for staff; and family and community involvement.18 Four components hold promise for identification and prevention. Health Education Child abuse and neglect prevention programs should provide comprehensive instruction at all age levels, including early childhood. Evidence-based programs should address personal safety to increase knowledge and awareness about child abuse and neglect, and teach children essential life skills. Furthermore, programs also need to promote social-emotional learning to help all children, particularly the maltreated, to become more resilient and cope more effectively with challenges. Essential skills include cooperation, empathy, communication, problem solving, decision making, goal setting, impulse control, anger management, conflict resolution, coping, and stress management. Prevention programs should send messages to maltreated children that schools are safe places to seek help. An important yet often overlooked aspect of the health education curriculum involves parenting education. Such programs in elementary and secondary schools can promote knowledge and life skills development in areas such as healthy child development, positive discipline approaches, anger and stress management, and coping with conflict and aggression.6,19 The curriculum offers a natural pathway for teaching parenting education, which can be extended to teen and adult parents through after-school programs. Health Services Health services embrace the vision of children's physical, mental, emotional, and social health linked to their abilities to succeed academically and socially.20 School nurses play a valuable role in school and community child abuse prevention activities as well as provide early intervention and follow-up.21 School nurses and other school health service personnel can take leadership roles in developing individual health plans for maltreated children that focus on restoring health, promoting wellness, and minimizing or removing barriers to learning.22 Counseling, Psychological, and Social Services Licensed mental health professionals, vital contributors to the CSHP, can help with prevention, detection, intervention, and treatment of abuse and neglect. School counselors must report abuse, coordinate team effort inside and outside of school to treat the victim, prevent abuse, and facilitate behavior change.23 Counseling, psychological, and social services also play a significant role in implementing prevention curricula at school, providing inservice training for faculty and staff, and assisting in family/community prevention programs and services. Once abuse becomes known, intervention efforts must begin as soon as feasible and may require coordinating services between school and community agencies. Quick action by a team of counselors, psychologists, and social workers can decrease the negative effects of abuse.24 Child-centered interventions include academic assistance to increase scholastic performance, social skills programs to improve peer relationships, and advocacy efforts where a teacher, counselor, or other school representative serves as a special advocate for the child.25 Family and Community Involvement Child abuse and neglect prevention extend beyond the school. The mission of CSHPs asks schools to become proactive partners with families and communities to address the health needs of children. School health personnel and other community members should identify signs of abuse and neglect, report suspected cases of child maltreatment, participate in community prevention efforts, and advocate for enhanced child maltreatment prevention and intervention resources and services. A CSHP can provide a catalyst for a multifaceted, ecological approach to preventing child maltreatment. School health educators must heed the call of Sechrist26 to become powerful change agents. Even small changes can produce a powerful effect that transforms the lives of children. [Reference] » View reference page with links References 1. National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Child Maltreatment 2002: Summary of Key Findings. Available at: http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/pubs/factsheets/canstats.cfm. Accessed July 1, 2004. 2. US Dept of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Children's Bureau. Child Maltreatment 2000. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 2002. Available at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/publications/cm00. 3. National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. A Report on the Maltreatment of Children with Disabilities. Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1993. 4. Scannapieco M, Connell K. Consequences of child neglect: Children 0 to 3 years of age. APSAC Advisor. 2001;13(3&4):20-23. 5. Peddle N, Wang CT, Diaz J, Reid R. Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The 2000 50 State Survey. Chicago, Ill: Prevent Child Abuse America; 2002. 6. US Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. A Nation's Shame: Fatal Child Abuse and Neglect in the United States. Washington DC: Government Printing Office; 1995. 7. National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions. Available at: http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/pubs/factsheets/fatality.cfm. Accessed July 1, 2004. 8. Fromm S. Total Estimated Cost of Child Abuse and Neglect in the United Stales. Chicago, Ill: Prevent Child Abuse America; 2001. 9. Roberts JA, Miltenberger RG. Emerging issues in the research on child sexual abuse prevention. Educ Treat Child. 1999;22(1):84-102. 10. National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. What is Child Abuse and Neglect? Available at: http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/pubs/factsheets/whatiscan.pdf. Accessed July 1, 2004. 11. Daro D, McCurdy K. Preventing child abuse and neglect: programmatic interventions. Child Welfare. 1994;73(5):405-430. 12. Brofenbrenner U. Toward an experimental ecology of human development. Am Psych. 1977;52:513-531. 13. Renk K, Liljequist L, Steinberg A, Bosco G, Phares V. Prevention of child sexual abuse: are we doing enough? Trauma Viol Abuse. 2002;3(1):68-84. 14. Peirson L, Laurendeau M-C, Chamberland C. Context, contributing factors, and consequences. In: Prilleltensky I, Nelson G, Peirson L, eds. Promoting Family Wellness and Preventing Child Maltreatment: Fundamentals for Thinking and Action. Toronto: University of Toronto; 2001:41-123. 15. Berson IR. The role of schools in addressing child abuse and neglect. APSAC Advisor. 2002;14(1):4. 16. Towers C. The Role of Educators in the Prevention and treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1992. 17. Murray NG, Schuler KE, Lopez SD, Low B, Kelder SH, Parcel G. School Connections: Schools Connecting Health And Success. Houston, Tex: The University of Texas, Houston School of Public Health, Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research; 2001. 18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthy Youth! Coordinated School Health Programs. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/CSHP/index.htm. Accessed July 1, 2004. 19. Gaudin JM. Child Neglect: A Guide for Intervention. Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families; 1998. 20. National Health Consortium. The relationship to learning: healthy brain development. Principles and practices of student health. J Sch Health. 1992;62:262-272. 21. National Association of School Nurses. Position statement on child abuse and neglect. Available at: http://www.nasn.org/positions/childabuse.htm. Accessed July 1, 2004. 22. National Association of School Nurses. Position statement on coordinated school health program. Available at: http://www.nasn.org/positions/coordinated.htm. Accessed July 1, 2004. 23. American School Counselor Association. Position statement: Child abuse. Available at: http://www.schoolcounselor.org. Accessed July 1, 2004. 24. Lowenthal B. Educational implications of child abuse. Int Sch Clinic. 1999;32(1):207-210. 25. Thompson RA, Wyatt JM. Current research on child maltreatment: implications for educators. Educ Psycho Rev. 1999;11(3):173-201. 26. Sechrist W. Health educators and child maltreatment: a curious silence. J Sch Health. 2000;70(6):241-243. [Author Affiliation] Marilyn Massey-Stokes, EdD, CHES, Associate Professor, Health, Exercise, and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University, Box 43011, Lubbock, TX 79409-3011; (email@example.com); and Beth Lanning, PhD, CHES, Assistant Professor, Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, P.O. Box 97313, Waco, TX 76798-7313; (Beth_Lanning@baylor.edu). source..
CHILD ABUSE ACROSS CULTURE
(07 May, 2011
Child Abuse Across Culture
Child abuse has become a public health issues, this has been proved by the UN Secretary General’s Report on Violence against Children. As a response, the world health organization has ended up launching an unprecedented effort in the prevention of child maltreatment in all countries around the world. In conjunction with this, Edwards (2006) and Massey-Stokes, & Lanning, (2004), have both referenced child sexual abuse as one type of child abuse being experienced across all cultures in the world. As an effect, this easy tries to discuss the role of health educators in the prevention of sexual child abuse. In addition, it discusses whether the different views concerning spanking and corporal punishment burn is attributed to cultural difference.
Child Sexual abuse is just a form of child abuse under which adults or older adolescent ends up using a child for sexual stimulation. This form of abuse involves “asking or even pursuing children to engage in sexual practices, no matter the results, indecent exposure of children’s genital parts, display of pornography to children, real sexual contact against children, physical contact with genital parts of children viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact or using a child to produce child pornography”, (Edwards, 2006).
In dealing with this kind of child abuse, health educator have the ability of preventing this specific type of abuse targeting parents, families and even children. Health education can include programs that provide comprehensive directions to all individuals regardless of their age. They should design evidence based programs that addresses personal safety increasing both knowledge and awareness about child sexual abuse, as well as teaching children essential life skills. They should develop programs tha...
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