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Earth, Water Movements And Circulation Patterns: Horrigan & Mustart (Essay Sample)


Three-Paragraph Essay Guidelines

Essays are due at the beginning of the first class meeting of each week. They must be typed or neatly handwritten. The structure of the essays, unless otherwise instructed, is as follows:

  A.Title of Essay, your name (Last, First), class # (ERTH 170. Sec.#), and date. (10 points)

  B. Paragraph #1: State an overview of the topic. Describe the essential components of the topic. Show your understanding of how these components interact to create a logical system. For example, if the topic is "Waves", then define and describe the fundamental properties of waves. Try to make a definition that includes all aspects of waves, but excludes all things that are not waves (for example, different types of ocean waves include: gravity waves, deep-water waves, shallow water waves, tsunami, wind waves, and seiche waves). Give examples to support your explanation of the topic. (20 points)

 C. Paragraph #2: Choose one aspect of the main topic, then go into greater depth and detail describing it. Break it down further into its fundamental parts. For example, given the concept of waves as a topic, you might choose tsunami, describing what the term means, the history of tsunami, how they are generated, and their effect on shorelines and life.  Use examples to support your thoughts. You may choose historical events to further deepen our understanding (e.g., the Fukushima, Japan disaster of  2011, or the Banda Aceh tragedy of 2004). (20 points)

 D. Paragraph #3: State a personal connection that you have with the topic. Choose any aspect of the topic that you have had a special personal connection to, then describe in detail that connection, along with your personal feelings in a way that can make the rest of us understand and relate to your experience. For example, you took a vacation to Hawaii and visited the ancient volcano Diamond Head at Waikiki on the island of O’ahu. It was a particularly calm day, so you decided to boogie board the waves at the point. All of a sudden, a ‘freak’ wave caught you and sent you straight up 7 meters on a breaking mountain of water. Just when you were about to be swallowed by the ocean forever, an unseen hand reached out, grabbed you, and plopped you on his surfboard.  It was Chris Ward, out that day at Waikiki practicing up for the Mavericks competition. Lucky you


Ocean currents are a mixture of water movements and circulation patterns, which range in size, time and velocity, and are mainly generated by wind, but also depend on tides and water density. The direction of ocean currents and variability of speed are some of the outstanding features of the currents. The Coriolis Effect influences the warm surface flow and cool subsurface flow where Northern hemisphere currents move clockwise (Horrigan & Mustart, 20090. There are two types of waves, the safe currents and deep water currents. Surface currents represent water currents that occur on the top ocean layers and are mainly caused by winds and seasonal patterns affect the surface currents. The deep water currents occur deeper in the oceans and are affected by the temperature changes and ocean water density trough the process of thermohaline circulation that depends on temperature and salinity.
Ocean waves may affect maritime activities and in the case of the large-scale surface ocean currents heat moves from the tropical to the polar regions affecting both local and global climate (Horrigan & Mustart, 2009). For instance, the Gulf Stream, one of the major western boundary currents warms the cold water of the Atlantic and this is then carried to Northern Europe. When the earth rotates wa

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