enzymes (Essay Sample)
hello.i need the essay about Enzymes. my teacher gave to me the essay structure, please follow the structure for writing. please dont write professional essay, i need simple, using your own words work. a few times i got problems on your site because i got very professional essay, thats good but not for me, because not my level, my teacher should believe this is my work. please dont forget this, i dont want to get trouble and also no time to wait when you rewrite it. also im going to attach to order citations and references, please check that paper before you start write. my teacher posted that. also im going to attach enzymes lab and quiz, all answers there is correct, teacher already checked it, you can get get the lab report answers from there, and if you want you can use some information from quiz. teacher is very difficult person please try to follow her instructions. if you have any question please message me anytime. thanks.
Enzyme lab checklist
General knowledge of enzymes
What is an enzyme?
What does an enzyme do? Activation energy, substrate, etc.
How is the shape of an enzyme determined?
What specific enzyme did we use in the lab?
What does this enzyme do? What is the equation for hydrogen peroxide decomposition?
What affects an enzyme’s ability as a catalyst?
How does temperature and pH affect the activity of the enzyme?
make a prediction for change in activity at different temperatures.
prediction is clear and not vague
support your predictions. Why do you predict a change in activity at different temperatures?
Write it in a way that makes sense and flows well!!!
General things about introduction
Find something about enzymes not discussed in our lab or lecture books.
Don’t put actual data in introduction
complete/ easy to understand sentences
good paragraph transitions
no redundant information
no separate subheading for predictions
Need to have citations in introduction
can complete experiment from your procedure. Your procedure is complete.
sentences are clear and well written.
Do not put actual data in procedure.
Neat table for temperature/foam height
label measurements. Did you measure the height in centimeters, inches, what? What was temperature measured in?
don’t discuss data in data section, just present data
Was your prediction supported?
when you discussed whether your prediction was supported you did not tell the reader what the prediction was. Usually predictions are restated in the conclusion.
_____ Explain how the data supported you predictions. Why was the zero Celsius foam height so low? Why was the boiling foam reading so low? Why do you think the room temperature reading gave the highest reading?
_____When you discuss actual data, don’t overdo it by simply restating the data, only use the data that is important in supporting or refuting your predictions. For instance you can say the zero Celsius reading was very small. The reader can look for the exact reading, if they feel like it, in your data.
discuss sources of error
Does some of the data that refute your prediction seem ridiculous and unexpected?
what could have happened in lab that could have messed up the experiment?
don’t just give me a source of error, explain how it could have messed up the data. For example, how could putting to much liver one test tube affect the data? How could not keeping the test tubes in the water baths long enough affect the data? Would you expect a higher or lower bubble measurement?
need closing paragraph that sums up what was learned about enzymes, their activity, and their importance.
need a reference page
not correctly done
In general about the lab report:
don’t use I did, she did. Use third person only.
sloppy in general
very poor English/ comprehension
Proteins are polymers made up of monomers called amino acids. There are many functions of proteins. Some are used for structure (hair), some are used for motion (muscle) and some are used for transporting other molecules, and others for speeding up chemical reactions, acting as signals, and used in defense.
Enzymes are a very important type of protein. They are responsible for our bodies metabolism. Metabolism means chemical reactions that occur in our body. An enzyme is a catalyst; a molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction. Chemical reactions make or break molecules and require a good deal of energy to occur (called activation energy). Most cells aren’t hot enough for these reactions to occur spontaneously (We use Bunsen burners to create reactions in a chemistry lab). The enzyme brings the reactants together in a way that lowers this activation energy allowing the reaction to occur . The enzyme will bind to the molecules and put them under some kind of stress that makes it easier for bonds to break and start a reaction.
Each enzyme has a particular shape that has caves that fit particular reactants (called substrates). This ‘cave’ is the enzyme’s active site(s) and when a substrate lands on this site, it causes an induced fit due to a slight change in the enzyme shape making the fit snug. The reaction occurs, making or breaking molecules, and the product(s) are released. The enzyme goes back to its original shape and is free to bind with more substrates . Enzymes names end in -ase. The enzyme that breaks down sucrose is called sucrase.
Certain molecules inhibit enzymes by two ways :
1. A molecule called an inhibitor can actually bind to the active site preventing substrates to bind.
2. Other inhibitors can bind elsewhere causing a change in the active sites shape, rendering the enzyme useless.
Most of the time this is reversible allowing these inhibitors to regulate metabolism.. Sometimes it is the product that is the inhibitor so if too much is made, it can shut down its own production. This is called feedback regulation. Sometimes pesticides and other poisons can act as inhibitors. Malathion inhibits an enzyme important to an insects nervous system. Antibiotics inhibit many enzymes in bacteria. Penicillin prevents an enzyme used to create cell walls in bacteria. Fortunately we don’t have this enzyme.
A protein’s three dimensional shape is imperative to its functioning. Changes in temperature or pH can disrupt the proteins shape, by breaking hydrogen bonds between the side groups, causing denaturation. Once a protein is denatured it loses its function.
Enzymes are a very important type of protein. They are responsible for our body’s metabolism. Metabolism means making or breaking of molecules. In other words, all the chemical reactions that occur in our body. An enzyme speeds up a chemical reaction. Chemical reactions make or break molecules and require a good deal of energy to occur (called activation energy). Most cells aren’t hot enough for these reactions to occur spontaneously (We use Bunsen burners to create reactions in a chemistry lab). The enzyme brings the reactants together in a way that lowers the activation energy allowing the reaction to occur .
The enzyme will bind to the molecules and put them under stress that makes it easier for bonds to break and start a reaction. Each enzyme has a particular shape that has caves that fit particular reactants (called substrates). This ‘cave’ is the enzyme’s active site(s). The reaction occurs, making or breaking molecules, and the product(s) are released. The enzyme goes back to its original shape and is free to bind with more substrates. It is never destroyed in a reaction.
Catalase is a specific enzyme used in your cells to deactivate hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is a by-product of various chemical reactions in the body. It is as dangerous as oxygen, capable of ripping apart other molecules, capable of destroying life. This enzyme takes the hydrogen peroxide substrate and makes two products, water and oxygen gas.
2H2O2 O2 +2H2O
Why do we use hydrogen peroxide in our wounds? To kill bacteria .What do you think bacteria are lacking in their cells? Catalase!
Today we will look at how temperature affects an enzymes ability to work.. I call this the goldilocks complex. We would expect there to be a change in activity according to temperature. Too cold and there isn’t enough energy. Too hot and there is so much it denatures the protein. Enzymes like the temperature just right. Our enzymes in our body like it around 98.6 F. Above 105 and denaturation occurs. That is death since no chemical reactions can happen in your body.
Each group will be assigned a temperature of either zero degrees, room temperature, 70C, or boiling.
- Take one test tube, put 2 centimeters of water in it and two drops of catalase (beef liver).
- Take the other test tube and put 2 centimeters of hydrogen peroxide in it.
- Place at temperature for fourteen minutes.
- Pour peroxide into enzyme tube.
After 30 seconds, measure only the foam height in centimeters. Record.
Foam rises slowly
Had barely foam but fast reaction
No foam but mixed together
Didn’t go all the way to the top
Color changed light ash
Enzyme Lab Home work ( all answers is correct and colored yellow)
1 What is an enzyme? – biological catalyst that speed up a chemical reaction.
2 What determines an enzymes shape? – amino acid sequence.
3. Enzymes speed up/ slow down a chemical reaction by
increasing / decreasing activation energy.
4 A. How does high temperatures make an enzyme useless?
high temperature denature enzyme by affecting their shape – his makes the enzyme useless.
B. What then happens to its interaction with the substrate?
It cant fit with the substrate in the active site.
5. A. What was the enzyme we worked with in lab? Catalase (beef liver)
B. What specifically does this enzyme do?
Breaks down the hydrogen peroxide.
6. How could bacteria evolve to not be killed by hydrogen peroxide?
Catalase convert the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
7. A. What did you see happen in some of the test tubes?
B. What is the product of the reaction that made this?
8. True or false. The tubes boiled for seven minutes had a huge chemical reaction when combined.
9.Putting too much hydrogen peroxide in the test tube would raise/lower the foam height at Room temperature.
10. True or false. An enzyme is altered in the chemical reaction.
11. The hydrogen peroxide is the product/substrate and the oxygen is the product/substrate.
12. According to the goldilocks complex why is room temperature just right?
Because too low not enough energy, too high –denature.
13. True or false. If an enzyme loses its shape (denatures) it keeps on functioning just fine.
14. What can extreme pH or extreme temperature do to a protein?
Denaturation (changing the structure of protein).
15. Compare substrate and product.
Substrate is molecula the enzyme acts on (starting material in chem reaction)
Product is what is created from the substrate (material resulting from chemical reaction).
16. When a substrate lands on the enzyme’s active site the enzyme’s shape changes to make a more loose/snug fit on it. This stresses out the covalent/hydrogen bonds making a chemical reaction easier.
17. The ‘cave’ that fits the substrate is called the enzyme’s active site
18. True or false. Enzymes are destroyed in a reaction and never can be used again.
19. True or false. An inhibitor molecule can prevent substrate binding by landing on another area of the enzyme, causing distortion of the cave site.
20. Antibiotics work through use of an inhibitor that prevents a certain enzyme in the bacteria from working.
21. How does ibuprofen work?
Inhibits an enzyme that a ‘ pain’ molecule.
Enzymes are biological protein catalysts that speed up reactions and their shapes are determined by the amino acid sequence. By decreasing the activation energy the enzymes are able to speed up the chemical reactions, while increasing the activation energy slows down the chemical reactions (Bbc.co.uk, 2016).A reaction takes place when the right substrate and the right enzyme connect at the enzyme's active sites. This means that the enzyme has to have a compatible shaped active site to allow for the binding and thus the reaction that results. During the lab experiment the enzyme that was used was catalase. This is an enzyme that is responsible for breaking down hydrogen peroxide.
The chemical formula for breaking down hydrogen peroxide gives of a molecule of oxygen and two molecules of water. The equation is as follows;
571500141604002H2O2catalase O2 +2H2O.
The enzymes ability to catalyze a chemical reaction can be affected by temperature, pH and the amount of products that have been produced within the reaction. If the temperature is too high, the enzymes which are made of proteins are denatured by breaking down the hydrogen bonds (Chemistry.elmhurst.edu, 2016). This affects the shape of the enzyme and thus the active site is distorted and the substrate cannot fit in the active site for the reaction to take place. This makes the enzymes useless as they cannot bind with the substrate. The enzymes also work at a specific pH and thus, if the level of pH is too high or too low, the enzymes will not work and thus no reaction will take place (Bbc.co.uk, 2016). The prediction is that, at the room temperature the reaction will most likely be at its highest, as this provides the ideal temperature range. The low temperature does not offer enough activation energy, while the room temperature offers just the right amount of energy. The higher temperatures lead to some of the enzymes being denatured and this means that they the active sites are going to be distorted leading to poor enzyme-substrate bonding (Castro, 2014).
The experiment will be conducted at three different temperatures, which is at zero, seventy degrees, room temperature and at one hundred degrees Celsius.
1 Take one test tube and put two centimeters of water and then put two drops of catalase (beef liver)
2 Take a...
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