Roman Empire in the Western Europe: History of Western Civilization (Essay Sample)
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History of Western Civilization - Religion & Philosophy
Western civilization developed after the end of the Roman Empire in the Western Europe. It is rooted in the civilization of ancient Rome and Greece which were founded on ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt respectively. Western religions are part of western civilization, implying that religion originated from western culture. Christianity was significantly influenced by Platonism and the Roman imperial cult. The history of western civilization was founded on both religion and philosophy. While Marcus Aurelius philosophy linked virtue with morality, wisdom, moderation and courage, Christ’s teachings on virtue inclined towards temperance, charity, chastity, kindness, patience, humility and diligence
Marcus Aurelius Roman Emperor philosophy is found in personal writings collection identified as meditations. These mirrors Stoicism influence and certainly the Stoic, philosophy of Epictetus. The stoic refers to Greek philosophy four cardinal virtues that include justice, prudence, temperance and fortitude. This was ancient convectional schemas for understanding virtue. The Stoics have diverse ways of conceptualizing virtues. Perry et al (2012) view virtue as living in harmony with Nature at three diverse levels which overlaps in some ways.
Prudence is the ability which on its own is a production of human happiness, the knowledge that produces happiness, the knowledge of differentiating between good and bad and judgment disposition for what to be executed or to be ignored. In essence, virtues are mirrored as moral wisdom. Prudence is the most general and essential of the Stoic virtues, acknowledges firmly grasped knowledge differentiating between good and bad as well as indifferent in life. This implies that it gives an understanding of grasping the value of things rationally. According to Perry et al (2012), prudence means firmly grasping the nature of the good and understanding that wisdom. Therefore prudence means love of wisdom in philosophical terms. Marcus referred to prudence as the capability of discerning the value of diverse external things rationally. To this end, prudence helps to
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