Industrialization After the Civil War (Essay Sample)
After the Civil War, the United States became a much more industrialized society. Between 1865 and 1920, industrialization improved American life in many ways. However, industrialization also created problems for American society. Consider events that took place after the Civil War and discuss ways that industrialization affected the U.S. between 1865 and 1920. You have already developed a thesis statement and developed an outline in which you identify three main points relevant to your topic. Now you will develop the final paper in which you explore your main points in detail. Write a three to five(3-5) page paper in which you: Introduce your paper with your previously crafted thesis statement. Identify three (3) major aspects of industrialization during 1865 and 1920 that influenced U.S. society, economy, and politics. Consider issues such as geography, entrepreneurship, legislative representation, etc. Explain your responses with specific examples and details. Identify three (3) specific groups that were affected by industrialization and provide two examples for each group describing how the group was affected. (Consider issues such as race, ethnicity, gender, child labor, etc.) Summarize how industrialization affected the life of the average working American during this period. Use specific examples and details. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA style or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date.The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: Identify and discuss the different ways that the heritage of slavery, the Civil War, the Reconstruction, and segregation have shaped America’s history. Summarize and discuss the ways that formal policies of government have influenced the direction of historical and social development in the United States. Recognize the major turning points in American history since the Civil War. Use technology and information resources to research issues in contemporary U.S. history. Write clearly and concisely about contemporary U.S. history using proper writing mechanic PREVIOUS PAPER Industrialization after the Civil War After the Civil War, the United States experienced industrialization that impacted its economy, society and politics. It was marked by a monumental transition that swept the urbanization of the American populations, and adoption of capitalism which gave the US a new economic and political standing in the world. Carroll (2008) asserts that this demographic evolution was as a result of the rapid increase of European immigrants and the mass displacement attributed to rural-urban population. Huge rural lands had been turned into plantations in order to provide raw materials for the emerging industries, which were considered the backbone of the American economy. In order to cope up with rapid changes potentiated by industrialization, there was need for social, political and technological innovations (Carroll, 2008). On the other hand, Heim (2002) points out that after the civil war, competition intensified in the American industries which strengthened the monopoly of few industries. This later led to price-cutting, overproduction, and price deflation, giving societies the purchasing power they never had. Among the diverse aspects of industrialization that influenced the U.S. society, economy, and politics between 1865 and 1920, is entrepreneurship. According to research, the U.S experienced an exceptional rapid economic growth after the civil war (between 1865 and 1920), with its gross domestic product (GPD) multiplying by over seven times, while its per capita product was more than double (Lamoreaux, 2008). These higher growth rates (total verses per capital GDP) infers that the U.S economy expanded as a result of adding new inputs as opposed to its increases attributed to more productivity. According to Lamoreaux (2008), America’s per capita rates increased to 1.7% per year between 1870-1920 and this was the best it had accrued in history. On the other hand, its total factor productivity increased from 51.0 to 81.2 between 1870 and 1920 respectively (Lamoreaux, 2008). After the civil war, technology gained prominence because it had been harnessed in the production of weaponry. As a result, it became an integral aspect of industrialization. Technological advances were used not only in industrial production but they were also used in agriculture to increase productivity (Zapotoczny, 2007). The widespread use of technology revolutionized industry and warfare as well (Zapotoczny, 2007) because through advanced and new technology, mass production of weapons which were more accurate, powerful and sophisticated was achieved. Besides weaponry, technology was harnessed in the construction of transport and communication networks. With all these technology, the American society benefited from faster and efficient transport. Industrialization led to mechanization, which impacted how people worked. Mechanization brought into existence the scientific management and assembly line, which utilized the principles of mechanization like continuity, standardization, constraint and general reduction of work to what is now referred to as simple labor (Backer, n.d). This helped workers to break away for the oppression that was hardwired in their feudal loads. Since then, these principles formed the industrial culture that influences how people worked (Backer, n.d). Although the United States had become a more industrialized society and improved the quality of life in many mays, not all groups of people enjoyed fully the benefits of industrialization. Among the groups of people who never benefited from this industrialization include: the Blacks, Italians, Irish, Chinese, and German among others. The blacks were ethnically prejudged as inferior and they were only introduced as strikebreakers (Nelson, 1975). On the other hand, the Italian immigrants could only perform unskilled labor and like blacks, whenever they tried to join trade unions because of harsh working conditions, they were turned down because they were foreigners (The Library of Congress, 2010). Both the Irish and the Italian became scapegoats of any financial difficulties just because they were foreigners and inferior. This translated to working for very little wages. Likewise also, both the Irish and Italians were considered inferior to Western and Northern Europeans and consequently, they were always victims of physical harassment from anti-immigrants mobs like Ku Klux Klan (The Library of Congress, 2010). The immigration of both Germans and Chinese was resented by American-born natives who perceived themselves as superior them. The Germans and Chinese were poorer than the natives besides being Catholics (The Library of Congress, 2010). This became a reason for them to be hated so much that they become part of the unskilled laborers in America as well. During the industrialization period, the lives of average working American ware impacted in different ways. Here below is a list of ways in which they were affected: i. Although there was increased wealth, average people did not reap the benefits that accompanied economic change. So, industrialization became a virtual experience to them than a reality that could transform their lives. ii. Most people in the rural areas were displaced from their lands to give room for the development of industries and expansion of agriculture. This left many homeless. iii. Improved transport and communication networks opened up interior lands for more agricultural and investment activities for those who were able iv. Due to increased cases of immigration, America became a multi-lingual and multicultural society. v. Although not everyone could be employed, majority of American the people secured jobs in industries. Besides this, overproduction of goods made basic commodities accessible and affordable hence improving the living standards of an average American laborer. In conclusion, the U.S post-civil war industrialization expanded the U.S economy and facilitated the development and harnessing of diverse technologies which impacted people’s ways of living. In other words, the industrial revolution brought to the average worker some conveniences that seemed to overhaul the ordinary living standards. REFFERENCES Carroll, J. (2008). Urbanization During the Gilded Age and Progressive Era: An Overview. In Professional Development: AP US History Urbanization Focus. College Board Inspiring Minds. Backer, R., P. (n.p). Industrialization of American Society. Retrieved from < http://www(dot)engr(dot)sjsu(dot)edu/pabacker/industrial.htm> Daniel Nelson, Managers and Workers. Origins of the New Factory System in the United States 1880-1920 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1975), p. 88 Heim, E., C. (2002). Capitalism. Working Paper (4). Political Economy Research Institute University of Massachusetts Amherst. Lamoreaux, R. N. (2008). Entrepreneurship in the United States, 1865-1920. University of California, Los Angeles. Zapotoczny, S., W. (2007). The Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Warfare. http://www(dot)wzaponline(dot)com/ The Library of Congress (2010). Immigration Challenges for New Americans. Teacher’s Guide Primary Source set. .source..
Industrialization after the Civil War
Following the end of the Civil War in the United States, the country became a more industrialized and developed society. Between the year 1865 and the year 1920, industrialization significantly improved the way of life of Americans. Nonetheless, it also brought about several problems for the American society.
The three major aspects of industrialization during the 1865 and 1920 that influenced the politics, economy and society of the United States are: entrepreneurship, technology, as well as transport and communication network.Entrepreneurship: the period after the Civil War from 1865 to 1920 was characterized by fast economic growth in the country. During this time period, real per capita product in the United Stated more than doubled and real Gross Domestic Product multiplied by over 7 times (Lamoreaux, 2010). The higher growth rates of total relative to per capita Gross Domestic Product indicate that the economy grew more by adding new inputs than it actually did through increasing productivity. The fast growing markets of the United States provided new opportunities for profits that entrepreneurs responded to. For instance, Andrew Carnegie responded to the opportunities and created Carnegie Steel and he went on to become the richest man in the world during that period.Other industrialists include Jay Gould and John Rockefeller who became very rich.The Constitution of the United States facilitated entrepreneurship since it created the world's largest free-trade zone by forbidding state governments from meddling with the value of money or repealing contracts, and by giving the national government the power of creating a system of intellectual property rights (Backer, 2010).
Technology: during this period of rapid economic growth, as entrepreneurs reacted to the many opportunities for profit that the countryâ€&trad...
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