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2 pages/≈550 words
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APA
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
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English (U.K.)
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Topic:

Vaccines for Tuberculosis (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
A literature review essay on the topic: \"Vaccines for Tuberculosis\". - A report of 500 words excluding references (12 font, double spaced, 2.5 cm margins) under the following headings: 1- Summary: No more than 4 sentences covering the major issues and conclusions. 2- Introduction: Brief overview of key background information and outlining the scope of the review. 3- Review of Literature: Description and analysis of the literature pertaining to the topic. Sub-sections should be used to highlight the significant areas of the topic which you identify. * Figures and tables can be used to summarise and organise information or explain concepts and processes. In this section you should describe the current state of knowledge, highlight gaps in information, and identify conflicting views. ** BY answering these question you can deal with the previous part : && BCG is the current vaccine for TB – How was it made? Advantages and Disadvantages? Who gets it? && Outline 2 of the advanced live attenuated vaccine candidates? && Outline what is believed to be the basis of an effective immune response to TB? && What would you describe as the “perfect” TB vaccine? 4- Conclusion. This section should be brief and be used to express your evaluation on the topic, the current state of knowledge, gaps in knowledge revealed, and research needed to resolve lack of understanding or conflicts. 5- References. All sources of information to be cited in a consistent format. *** The prime sources of information cited must be from peer reviewed research publications. * Figures and tables can be used to summarise and organise information or explain concepts and processes. I provide you with papers which you can use . ( file ),,, source..
Content:

Vaccines for tuberculosis
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Summary
Tuberculosis (TB) contributes a huge percentage of global deaths with over 1.4 million deaths yearly, and over 9 million new infections annually despite the existence of a vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for over 90 years. The vaccine has worked effectively to protect most of the TB related illnesses, but has not been effective against pulmonary tuberculosis. The major issue at hand and of major concern is working on a new tuberculosis vaccine that will improve on BCG. The threat posed by tuberculosis needs addressing urgently and this will see a considerable drop in mortality rates (Flynn & Chan, 2001).
Introduction
The essay focuses on the key issues surrounding tuberculosis TB. It addresses the effects of the disease and its vaccine. BCG the vaccine for tuberculosis has been in existence for long, but still cases related to mortalities arising from tuberculosis are still increasing every year. The review takes into account the relation between TB and HIV/AIDS. It takes a deeper look at the development of BCG and its usefulness in the fight against TB, while efforts to improve it are ongoing. In consideration are the alternatives to BCG and the best vaccine that can be used to immunize against TB (Colditz, 1994). The global mortality rate has attributed to TB is on the increase and this calls for the need of an improved version to BCG.
Review of literature
BCG vaccine was discovered in 1908 and has actively worked in the prevention of the most severe forms of TB in children, with considerable failure in adults. BCG has failed to protect against pulmonary TB and explanations to the failure are not available. BCG, a live attenuated vaccine is administered to infants and rarely in adults. Symptoms of TB may be absent and this results in Latent Tuberculosis signifying immune responses to antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) (Kaufmann, 2001). Recent reviews have discussed the use of li...
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