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Tort Law: TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY. (BHS420 - Quantitative Reasoning) (Essay Sample)

Module_1_SLP_BHS420_.doc BHS420 - Quantitative Reasoning Read ALL of the directions below carefully before you begin your paper. You are not writing a typical report-style essay for this assignment. Review a description and sample of an APA style annotated bibliography. Save this link because you will be asked to write more annotated bibliographies in future modules. 1. Begin with an introduction that tells me what the hypothesis you developed for the Module 1 SLP is. If you received feedback asking you to improve it, please use the improved version. 2. Use ProQuest or Ebsco to search for 3 articles related to the area of interest you chose in the Module 1 SLP. They must be articles that would help you answer your research question. In other words, they have to be related to what you are trying to find out, as if you were a researcher investigating this topic. The articles must be from scholarly journals. They must be no more than 5 years old. Save the articles because you will use them in other assignments. Review the Background Information in this module regarding how to conduct a literature review. 3. Write an annotated bibliography for each article (not an essay). Before you begin, please review a description and sample of an APA style annotated bibliography at http://owl(dot)english(dot)purdue(dot)edu/owl/resource/614/03/ Save this link because you will be asked to write more annotated bibliographies in future modules. To access articles in the Library for this class and others; please refer to the instructions on the Syllabus and in Case 1. For the session long project, choose one area within the health issue below as your research topic. You will focus on the same topic for your SLP throughout the session. Traumatic brain injury Before you begin, read the instructions and expectations carefully -- this is not a typical report-style assignment. Narrow down the topic to a certain part of the population (i.e. an age group, gender, a certain race or ethnicity, or a particular geographic area). It will help to do some research before choosing your focus, so you can see what literature will be available to use throughout the session. Look at the SLP in Modules 2 - 5 so you can plan ahead as appropriate. Use credible professional sources such as ProQuest or EBSCO articles, or Websites from a university, government, or nonprofit organization to search for information about the issue. Consumer sources such as e-magazines, newspapers, and .com sites are not appropriate. 1. Introduce the topic and write a brief background about the scope of the problem. What is the health effect? How many people does it affect? Is there a treatment or a cure? What kind of research is being conducted about the problem? This part of the paper should be approximately 1 page. 2. Now, based on what you learned about the topic, think about what the gaps in knowledge seem to be. They are often stated in the "conclusions" of research articles. Using that information, do the following: State a properly phrased health-related research question that you would like to answer if you were a researcher. Review the information in the link provided on the Background Information page so you are clear as to what a research question is. This should not be a paragraph or an explanation, just a research question. 3. Now, formulate a specific hypothesis to investigate that research question. Again, this should not be a paragraph or an explanation, just a properly stated hypothesis. Review the information in the links provided on the Background Information page so you are clear as to what a hypothesis is. A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain caused by the head being hit by something or shaken violently. Being a military member the most familiar occurrence to me would be and explosion or extreme amount of blunt force to the head. I've personally seen this injury change how the person lived their entire life. Something as simple as remembering how to lace up your combat boots or even remembering basic routes to a location has been report as effects of TBI. I'm primarily accustomed to seeing the more severe cases because of the populace I served. The age groups I typically deal with are under the age of 45 and range from ages 18-45. In individuals younger than 45 years, injury is the primary cause of death in the United States and other developed nations. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the major cause of disability, morbidity, and mortality among this group and is responsible for a significant proportion of all traumatic deaths in the U.S. (Sosin DM, Sacks JJ, Smith SM, 1989) Every year, at least 1.7 million TBIs occur either as an isolated injury or along with other injuries. TBI is a contributing factor to a third (30.5%) of all injury-related deaths in the United States. About 75% of TBIs that occur each year are concussions or other forms of mild TBI. (Faul M, Xu L, Wald MM, Coronado VG, 2010) I'm a military member and also a licensed chemical dependency counselor. I was deployed to Landstuhl Region Medical Center in Germany where my clinic team received all TBI patients from the Middle Eastern region. I had multiple interactions with younger and older individuals diagnose with mild and severe TBI that exhibited these exact symptoms. Other than standard over the counter drugs for headaches, mild traumatic brain injuries traditionally require no treatment. Most people who have had a significant brain injury will require rehabilitation. The type and duration of rehabilitation/therapy varies by individual, depending on the severity of the brain injury and what part of the brain was injured. There are many research center in the US conducting research on TBI that are funded by government and private sources. Epidemiological research, Studies of the rehabilitation for moderate/severe TBI Mild TBI and Concussion research are current researches being conducted not only in my clinic but also around the world. Gap in knowledge: the generalization of mild TBI in younger patients. Research Question: What are common mistakes providers make when diagnosing mild to moderate TBI in younger patients in America, and how can these commonalities be used to aid the medical community in recognizing it? Statement of hypothesis: Older patients would be more affected by a mild TBI than younger patients on their neuropsychological performance. The Consequences of a neurological incident affecting the brain would be less evident and limiting in those with younger age than older patients. Reference: Sosin DM, Sacks JJ, Smith SM. Head injury-associated deaths in the United States from 1979 to 1986. JAMA 1989;262: 2251–5. Sosin DM, Sniezek JE, Waxweiler RJ. Trends in death associated with traumatic brain injury, 1979 through 1992: success and failure. JAMA 1995;273: 1778 Faul M, Xu L, Wald MM, Coronado VG. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2010 source..
1. If you suffer traumatic brain injury, your risk of having a stroke within three months may increase tenfold, according to a new study reported in Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association
"It's reasonable to assume that cerebrovascular damage in the head caused by a traumatic brain injury can trigger either a hemorrhagic stroke or an ischemic stroke" said Herng-Ching Lin. It is the first study that pinpoints traumatic brain injury as a potential risk factor for subsequent stroke. Traumatic brain injury occurs when an external force such as a bump, blow or jolt to the head disrupts the normal function of the brain. Causes include falls, vehicle accidents, and violence. In the United States alone, approximately 2 in 106 individuals sustain a traumatic brain injury each year, according to 2004 statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Worldwide, traumatic brain injuries are a major cause of physical impairment, social disruption and death. After considering age and gender, patients with traumatic brain injury were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and heart failure than non-traumatic brain injury patients. Early neuroimaging examinations -- such as MRI -- and intensive medical monitoring support and intervention should be required following a traumatic brain injury, especially during the first few months and years, Lin said. Moreover, better health education initiatives could increase public awareness about the factors that cause strokes and the signs and symptoms of stroke in patients with traumatic brain injuries."Stroke is the most serious and disabling neurological disorder worldwide," said Lin. "Our study leads the way in identifying stroke as an additional neurological problem that may arise following traumatic brain injury."
1 Scientists from Melbourne's Howard Florey Institute have found special proteins that protect the brain after it has been damaged by a lack of oxygen, which occurs in conditions such as stroke, perinatal asphyxia, and near-drowning and traumatic brain injury.
Dr Nicole Jones and her team discovered that during oxygen deprivation, or 'hypoxia', these proteins (HIF1 and PHD2) increase. These proteins regulate processes like the production of red blood cells and new blood vessels, and the flow of glucose to the brain. Therefore...
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