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Health, Medicine, Nursing
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The Gastrointestinal System Medicine Assignment (Essay Sample)


➢ Please use Peer-reviewed articles and credible websites such as CDC, Mayo and any website The article needs to be 5 years old (2014-2019).
➢ 2 pages ( 3 words)
➢ Instruction what to write as listed below:
• Describe the normal pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production.
What are the changes that occur to gastric acid stimulation and production with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and gastritis disorders?
• diagnose and prescribe treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).


Gastric Acid
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Gastric Acid
Gastric acid is basically the juice of stomach that limits the colonization of microbes inside the stomach. This acid basically baths the ingested food which leads towards the breaking down of the food into smaller particles making it easier to digest. Gastric acid is produced by the cells that are present inside the stomach.
Besides, Gastric acid helps in a variety of physiological functions including food digestion and keeping the microbes out, the excessive secretion of it could have a detrimental effect on the body. This essay is going to discuss the pathophysiology of its secretion and its related diseases. Gastric acid basically acts as the first line of protection that restricts the growth and invasion of pathogens that are acquired from the external environment.
Pathophysiology of Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production
The juice of the stomach is called digestive fluid and it is a combination of stimulatory and inhibitory elements. The composition of gastric acid includes hydrochloric acid (HCL), sodium chloride (NaCl), and potassium chloride (KCL) (Medscape, 2019). This acid plays a significant role in protein digestion through activation of digestive enzymes. These enzymes basically assist in the unraveling of the protein so the long chains of amino acids can be broken down (Medscape, 2019).
Moreover, the cells that are present on the stomach lining are basically responsible for the production of gastric acid (Medscape, 2019). Even, these cells are connected with the feedback system of the body to enhance or diminish the production according to the need of the body.
Parietal cells are basically the epithelial cells that are responsible for the production of the most significant component of gastric juice that is hydrochloric acid (HCL) inside the stomach (Medscape, 2019). It has been identified that the capacity of HCL secretion has a linear relation with the parietal cell numbers. On stimulation, parietal cells secrete 160 mm concentration of HCL which is equal to 0.8 PH (Medscape, 2019). The secreted acid supposedly reaches the lumen of the stomach through the channels of the mucous layer. The G cells that are present in the pyloric mucosa secrete gastrin which is considered as a significant trigger for the production of gastric acid.
The epithelial wall of the stomach is made in a way that it can withstand the acidity of gastric acid to a normal extent. However, excessive release can lead towards different medical condition including gastritis and gastric ulcers (Sipponen & Maaroos, 2015). The hypersecretory of gastric acid is a very dangerous situation because it negatively affects the mucosal lining and the stomach
Furthermore, hypersecretory is specifically made to protect the stomach from the acidity of the gastric juice. The secretion of these fluids is depended upon the diet and lifestyle of a person and excessive release of HCL creates symptoms i.e. burning sensation, bloating after having a meal (Waldum, Hauso & Fossmark, 2014). The condition of the stomach needs to be maintained properly to avoid such situations. This can be obtained through coordination between hormonal, neural, and paracrine pathways.
GERD, Peptic Ulcers, and Gastritis Disorders
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is basically the condition in which gastric secretion

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