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1 page/≈275 words
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APA
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
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Essay
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English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Screening for Diseases: Test Sensitivity and Specificity (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

Please see attach file and answer the question 1. What would be the impact on this test's sensitivity if you moved the cutoff for a positive result from A to B? What about specificity? What would happen to sensitivity and specificity if you moved the cutoff from A to C? Where would you put the cutoff for this test? What is the relationship between sensitivity and specificity for any given test? 2. Where would the director of the Blood Bank who is screening donated blood for HIV antibody want to put the cutoff? What would be the potential problem caused by this decision? Where would an investigator enrolling high-risk patients in a clinical trial for an experimental, potentially toxic antiretroviral draw the cutoff? What would be the potential problem caused by this decision? In your answer please detail possible ethical and legal issues of possible concern.

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Content:

Screening for Diseases
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1] What would be the impact on this test's sensitivity if you moved the cutoff for a positive result from A to B? What about specificity? What would happen to sensitivity and specificity if you moved the cutoff from A to C? Where would you put the cutoff for this test? What is the relationship between sensitivity and specificity for any given test?
The sensitivity of the screening test relates to the ability to identify individuals who are affected by HIV, without showing false negative results (Friis & Sellers, 2009). On the other hand, specificity is the ability of the test to correctly identify individuals who are unaffected and increasing the cutoff point to point B will increase the specificity compared to the sensitivity. Moving the cutoff to C will lower the specificity, since more people who are unaffected will grouped as being diseased. The best cutoff point is at A, as this maximizes sensitivity and the specificity. There is an inverse relationship between sensitivity and specificity, when the screening tests are more efficient there is a lower false-positive rate. The sensitivity of the test relates to the proportion of people are infected a...
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