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Essay Available:
Pages:
3 pages/≈825 words
Sources:
5 Sources
Level:
APA
Subject:
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Type:
Essay
Language:
English (U.S.)
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MS Word
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Topic:

Qualitative Research Critique. Background of the Study (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

PLEASE USE ENCLOSED RUBRIC YTO ANSWER QUESTION.
Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

1
Unsatisfactory
0.00%
2
Less than Satisfactory
75.00%
3
Satisfactory
83.00%
4
Good
94.00%
5
Excellent
100.00%
75.0 %Content

15.0 %Background of Study
Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is incomplete.
Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is included but lacks relevant details and explanation.
Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is partially complete and includes some relevant details and explanation.
Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is complete and includes relevant details and explanation.
Background of study including problem, significance to nursing, purpose, objective, and research questions is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation.
15.0 %Method of Study
Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is incomplete.
Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is included but lacks relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is partially complete and includes some relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is complete and includes relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of method of study including discussion of conceptual/theoretical framework is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation.
15.0 %Results of Study
Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is incomplete.
Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is included but lacks relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is partially complete and includes some relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is complete and includes relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of study results including findings and implications for nursing practice is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation.
15.0 %Ethical Considerations
Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is incomplete.
Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is included but lacks relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is partially complete and includes some relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is complete and includes relevant details and explanation.
Discussion of ethical considerations associated with the conduct of nursing research is thorough with substantial relevant details and extensive explanation.
15.0 %Conclusion
Conclusion does not summarize a critical appraisal and applicability of findings.
Conclusion is vague and does not discuss importance to nursing.
Conclusion summarizes utility of the research and importance to nursing practice.
Conclusion summarizes utility of the research from the critical appraisal and the findings importance to nursing practice.
Conclusion summarizes utility of the research from the critical appraisal, knowledge learned, and the importance of the findings to nursing practice.
15.0 %Organization and Effectiveness

5.0 %Thesis Development and Purpose
Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.
Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.
Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.
Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.
Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
5.0 %Argument Logic and Construction
Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.
Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.
Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.
Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.
Argument is clear and convincing and presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)
Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.
Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.
Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.
Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.
Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
10.0 %Format

5.0 %Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)
Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.
Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.
Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.
Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.
All format elements are correct.
5.0 %Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)
Sources are not documented.
Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.
Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.
Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.
Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.
100 %Total Weightage
TOPIC 1 ASSIGNMENT ANSWER:
Low Nurse-Patient Ratio in Hospitals
PICOT Statement
The PICOT statement purposes to determine the effectiveness of increasing the nurse-patient ratio in medical-surgical units.
P = Inpatients at medical-surgical unit
I = Does a high nurse to patient ratio
C = as compared to low nurse to patient ratio
O = improve patient outcome
T = during their admission time at the hospital?
Question: Inpatients at the medical-surgical unit, does a high nurse to patient ratio as compared to low nurse to patient ratio improve patient outcome during their admission time at the hospital?
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND
Nurses play a critical role in promoting and maintaining the health system’s efficacy. Nurses are also the only health practitioners who spend the most time with patients. A care institution with few nurses may be overwhelmed by the number of patients in need of medical and surgical services. As established by Driscoll et al. (2017), the low nurse-patient ratio has an adverse outcome to nurse-sensitive patients. Provision of quality care is also jeopardized as available nurses may not accord every maximum patient attention. If the nurses are overwhelmed with the number of patients, they may suffer fatigue hence affecting the quality of care given to the patients (Van Bogaert et al., 2014). Recent studies have suggested that understaffing and the use of less qualified nursing staff may be important contributors to the incidence of adverse effects in acute care hospitals. (Rochefort CM, Buckeridge DL, Abrahamowicz M. , 2015)
Evidenced-Based Solution
The impact of a high nurse to patient ration has been significant in various countries. As established by Aiken et al. (2013), various studies in Europe indicate that a high number of nurses in hospitals improve efficiency in the delivery of quality patient care. Therefore, increasing the nurse staffs ratio has a positive impact towards the patient outcome in care institutions. Hospital management should consider addressing the nurse shortages in their organizations to guarantee quality patient care and as well reduce cost of paying Agency nurses. Cross-Sectional studies, mostly in intensive care unit or postsurgical settings support a relationship between the number of nurses staffed per patient and inpatient mortality. (Shekelle, PG, 2013)
Solution
Hiring new nurses is a solution to filling the workforce gap in hospitals. Additionally, the management has to strategize on how to retain the hired nurses to avoid workforce turnover in future. When the number of nurses in a health entity is increased depending on its capacity, nurses are not overstretched in case there is an influx of patients.
Patient Care
Patients who are sick visit the hospital in search of healthcare, they are in search of relief from their illnesses. Healthcare providers addressing the patients' needs, so that they can go back to their healthy life. Therefore, nurses should be made available to ensure the patient spend the shortest time possible in the hospital but get quality care. The patient should also be involved in the care process so that he or she can become independent by playing an active role in the process. With quality care, the rate of hospitalization and its associated care costs are reduced to both the patient and the government. Higher registered nurse staffing was associated with less hospital-related mortality, failure to rescue, cardiac arrest, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and other adverse events. (McGahan, M; Kucharski, G; Coyer, F, 2012)
Health Care Agency
The hospital is the center where patients meet experts who address their health issues. As an organization, it has a critical role in ensuring that adequate staff nurses are enough to match the number of patients seeking for expert healthcare services. In addition, hospitals should employ measures that provide retention of the health professionals. Additionally, there should be policies that promote and guarantee quality care among the patients.
Nursing Practice
The PICOT question is very important to the nursing practice. By proving the impact of a high nurse to patient ratio compared to low nurse-patient ratio, health organizations will emphasize the need for more nurses. Consequently, more nurses can be employed in care institutions to improve care quality. Addressing the nurse to patient ratio will reduce the care challenges related to nurse shortages in hospitals and significantly improve patient outcome.
References
Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Bruyneel, L., Van den Heede, K., Sermeus, W., & RN4CAST Consortium. (2013). Nurse’s reports of working conditions and hospital quality of care in 12 countries in Europe. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(2), 143-153.
Driscoll, A., Grant, M. J., Carroll, D., Dalton, S., Deaton, C., Jones, I. … Astin, F. (2017). The effect of nurse-to-patient ratios on nurse-sensitive patient outcomes in acute specialist units: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 17(1), 6-22. Doi: 10.1177/1474515117721561
McGahan M; Kucharski, G; Coyer, F; Winner ACCCN Best Nursing Review Paper 2011 sponsoredcby Elsevier. Aust Crit Care 2012 May: 25(2): 64-77. Doi: 10.1016/j.aucc.2012.03.003. Epub 2012 April 18
Rochefort CM, Buckeridge DL, Abrahamowicz M. Implementation Science: IS. 2015 June 14: 10: 89. doi: 10.1186/sl3012-015-0278-1
Shekelle, PG. Nurse-Patient Ratios as a Patient Safety Strategy: A Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. 2013: 158:404-409. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-5-201303051-00007
Van Bogaert, P., Timmermans, O., Weeks, S. M., van Heusden, D., Wouters, K., & Franck, E. (2014). Nursing unit teams matter: Impact of unit-level nurse practice environment, nurse work characteristics, and burnout on nurse reported job outcomes, and quality of care, and patient adverse events—A cross-sectional survey. International Journal of Nursing

source..
Content:


Qualitative Research Critique
Name
Institution
Qualitative Research Critique
Background of the Study
The study by McGahan, Kucharski, and Coyer (2012) sought to review the relationship between the level of staffing among nurses and the incidences of mortality. As noted in the study, previous studies have not been able to establish a significant relationship between these two parameters, which prompted the need for a review of various studies to establish a trend between staffing levels and mortality incidences. One of such study was conducted by Numata, et al. (2006) while another was carried out by West, Mays, Rafferty, Rowan, & Sanderson (2009). Specifically, most studies in this area have been cross-sectional, thus presenting a challenge in determining a statistically significant association between the stated parameters (McGahan, Kucharski, & Coyer, 2012). As such, studies that were conducted 10 years prior to this study were reviewed to determine whether a statistically significant relationship between staffing level and mortality rates in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been established so far.

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