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Inflammation, Tissue Repair, and Wound Healing (Essay Sample)


Apply knowledge of tissue and organ structure and function to physiologic alterations in systems and analyze the cause and effect relationship in response to disease.


In your discussion be sure to include evidence of your knowledge of tissue and organ structure and function to physiologic alterations in systems and analyze the cause and effect relationship in response to disease.

1. Make sure the topic in the case study have been addressed.

2. Cite at least four-five sources—journal articles, textbooks, or evidenced-based websites—to support the content.

3. All sources must have been written within five years.

4. Do not use .com, Wikipedia, or up-to-date, etc., for your sources.


Case Study:

Inflammation, Tissue Repair, and Wound Healing

Carlton, a six-year-old boy, was playing on a sandy beach with his mother. He began to run along the shoreline when he stepped on the sharp edge of a shell, giving himself a deep cut on his foot. His mother washed his foot in the lake and put on his running shoe to take him home. One day later, Carlton’s foot looked worse. The gash was red and painful. The foot was warm to touch and appeared swollen. Carlton’s mom put some gauze over the wound and prepared to take him to the local community health clinic.

1.What is the physiologic mechanism causing the wound to become red, hot, swollen, and painful? How is this different than the inflammatory response that might occur in an internal organ?

2.What are the immunologic events that are happening at the local level during Carlton’s acute inflammatory response?

3.Nutrition plays an important factor in wound healing. What stages of wound healing would be affected by a deficiency in vitamins A and C?


Inflammation, Tissue Repair, and Wound Healing
It is evident from the signs and symptoms that Carlton may be undergoing normal acute inflammation process. The warmth and erythema are as a result of vasodilation. There is increased permeability of the vessels and the rate of movement of the exudates towards the surrounding tissues is also high (Janssen & Henson, 2011). Pain or sensation is as a result of swelling or engorgement of fluid at that area. The swollen fluid increases pressure which causes pain. The vascular phase of acute inflammation is characterized by changes in the small blood vessels at the site of injury. It begins with momentary vasoconstriction followed rapidly by vasodilation. Vasodilation involves the arterioles and venules with a resultant increase in capillary blood flow, causing heat and redness, which are two of the cardinal sign of inflammation (Janssen & Henson, 2011). This is accompanied by an increase in vascular permeability with outpouring of protein rich fluid (exudate) into the extravascular spaces. The loss of proteins reduces the capillary osmotic pressure and increases the interstitial osmotic pressure. This, coupled with an increase in capillary pressure, causes a marked outflow of fluid and its accumulation in the tissue spaces, producing the swelling, pain, and impaired function that represent the other cardinal signs of acute inflammation. As fluid moves out of the vessels, stagnation of flow and clotting of blood occur. This aids in localizing the spread of infectious microorganism (Grossman & Porth, 2014, p. 308-011).
Whenever an injury to the tissue occurs, acute inflammation takes place almost immediately. Events that result in trauma or burns, as well as sepsis and major surgeries, are all major contributors to inflammation. As initially stated, acute inflammation is typified by three events in the body physiology. These are vasodilation, second is the neutrophil infiltration, and finally, there is the fluid exudation. These three processes are initiated and strictly controlled by a homeostatic mechanism governed by intra and extracellular factors. It is the first defense the body has against injury. The characteristic of acute inflammation is microcirculation. This is a condition where leukocytes emigrate and fluid exudates to the injured parts from the blood vessels. This kind of self-defense occurs for a short period before the establishment of the immune response. Its primary goal is to deal with the injury agent.
There are five cardinal signs of acute inflammation; increased heat (calor), swelling (tumor), redness (rubor), loss of function (function laesa) and pain (dolor), (Janssen & Henson, 2011). There is an increase in the level of blood flow towards the area of inflammation which leads to heat. The accumulation of the fluid results in swelling. In the process, chemicals are released towards the nerve endings which lead to pain. Several factors combine leading to the loss of function.
The inflammation response that occurs in the internal organs or visceral inflammation is not quite different from the acute inflammatory response. Pathophysiologically, there is no change in temperature. Such is because, at any cost, the temperature must be maintained at the homeostatic level. Nonetheless, the pain is not as obvious as it is observed with acute inflammation. However, it can occur, especially when there is stimulation of the stretch receptors found on the surface of the visceral (Holzer, Farzi, Hassan, Zenz, Jacan, & Reichmann, 2017). It can actually be said that the inflammation process is uniform along the entire cross section of the body.
There isn't much difference between the internal and external types. Both are characterized by the secretion of cytokines, whose role is to attract ...

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