Explore The Visual Pathways And Their Related Disorders (Essay Sample)
Your task this week is to explore the visual pathways and their related disorders.
Disorder to be discussed: Eales Disease
What is the disorder, what damage in the brain is it associated with, and how would you test for it (i.e., how would a neurologist test for it)? When you feel you have a good grasp on it, teach it to the rest of us. You may include images or a short video. I'm interested in seeing your ability to identify and/or trace the source of the deficit.
ALSO, comment on the following videos:
http://www(dot)youtube(dot)com/watch?v=T1qnPxwalhw (associative agnosia: 6:29)
http://www(dot)youtube(dot)com/watch?v=XLGXAiSpN00&feature=BFa&list=PLE9A36E71ED72D146&lf=PlayList (prosopagnosia: 5:24)
http://www(dot)youtube(dot)com/watch?v=ny5qMKTcURE (blindsight: 10:06)
Eales' disease was first described by Henry Eales, a British ophthalmologist 1880. Eales characterized the disease with three overlapping stages; venous inflammation (vasculitis), occlusion, and retinal neovascularization. Its diagnosis is clinical and requires that other conditions that may present similar retinal characteristics be excluded. Its cause is not known, for the past years, scientists have been trying to establish the cause but they have not succeeded. For the past few years, studies such as biochemical, molecular biological and immunological have brought new insights into the disease. They have demonstrated the role of various factors such as retinal autoimmunity and human leukocyte antigen in the pathogenesis of the condition (Biswas et al., 2013). However, the same studies have demonstrated that its etiology is multifactorial. Most patients of the condition exhibit various symptoms such as those of cobwebs, floaters, blurring, floaters or decreased vision due to vitreous haemorrhage. Other patients exhibit blurriness which is associated with retinal vasculitis but lacks haemorrhage. The condition affects young adults especially the males. The management of the condition depends on the condition's stage.
Based on the available physical findings, mostly the condition involves the retina and vitreous. Most patients exhibit vascular inflammation with haemorrhage layers appear on the adjacent nerve fiber. The inflammation appears like thin white lines that block blood column concentrating the sheathing that results in vascular occlusion. It is believed that the condition primarily affects the retinal veins, but some of the findings have reported an effect on arterioles and venules. Parts of the vascular inflammation often leak some dye on the fluorescein angiography (FA).
Of all the available clinical laboratory studies, no single study can be used to confirm the test for this condition since its diagnosis is associated with exclusion (Das et al, 2010). However, although no single clinical laboratory study can confirm the diagnosis of this disease, these studies are necessary to facilitate the exclusion of similar characteristics. Imaging studies are the common ones that help in establishing the abnormalities associated with the condition.
Fluorescein angiography (FA) is helpful in the determination of the nature of microvascular abnormalities associated with the disease. The inflammation of the vessels leaks fluorescein dye. Therefore, imaging studies of the fluorescein angiography plays a significant role in the determination of the coverage area and concentration of the dye, which helps in deciding where laser photocoagulation can be applied (Das et al., 2010).
Echographic evaluation is another test which is important in evaluating the retina to determine how vitreous haemorrhage has been set. In case the fundus details has been obscured, ultrasound tests are conducted to establish whether retinal detachment or vetreoretinal tractions are present or absent.
Chest X-Rays can also be considered to establish sarcoidosis and history of tuberculosis in case of positive results in tuberculin skin test. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a significant role in revealing the multifocal white matter abnormalities. However, this study is not effective in cases where neurologic symptoms are absent. Therefore, it cannot be relied on unless patients exhibit some of the neurologic symptoms.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is another important modality that can be used in imaging the muscular morphology as well as its architecture. It helps
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