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BHS420: Descriptive Statistics SLP: Module 2 SLP B BHS420 - Quantitative Reasoning (Essay Sample)


Attached is topic In the previous module, you found research articles about your topic. Does one of them contain descriptive statistics? If so, you can use that article for this assignment. If not, you will have to search ProQuest to find another article about your topic. Before you choose the article, review what has to be included in your paper so you are sure to choose articles with the appropriate information. It must be from a professional, scholarly journal. It must be no more than 5 years old. In a 1 - 2 page paper, please address the following: 1. Write a one paragraph introduction to remind me of your research question and your hypothesis. If I have given you feedback to improve it, use the improved version. 2. Write a a concise summary of the descriptive statistics and findings in the article. This is different than a typical essay; it should focus only on the points listed below. Use headings and subheadings to guide the flow of your paper and clearly show that you have included these points: • Describe the source's use of descriptive statistical measures you learned about in this module. • Describe the statistics used and how the researcher interprets them in relation to his/her study. • Discuss how the findings in that article compare or contrast with the hypothesis you developed for your SLP area of research. In other words, does the article support help your hypothesis? Or contradict it? Please explain. Your summary must be written in your own words. I already know that the authors of the article can identify their statistics, so copying the information from the article will not show me what you understand. Do not copy/paste or simply paraphrase. Explain each section to me so I can see what you learned from reading the article. For examples of how to describe statistical measures or statistics used, refer to the abstracts of other research articles. ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS: Please read before completing assignments. •Copy the actual assignment from this page onto the cover page of your paper (do this for all papers in all courses). •Paper should be 2 pages in length (double-spaced). •Please use major sections corresponding to the major points of the assignment, and where appropriate use sub-sections (with headings). •Remember to write in a scientific manner (try to avoid using the first person except when describing a relevant personal experience). •Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is on independent thinking and critical analysis). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others. •When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be properly cited. This means that material copied verbatim must be enclosed in quotes and the reference should be cited either within the text or with a footnote. •Credible professional sources are used (for example, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, academic institutions, scholarly journals). Wikipedia is not acceptable.

Read ALL of the directions below carefully before you begin your paper.

You are not writing a typical report-style essay for this assignment.

Review a description and sample of an APA style annotated bibliography.

Save this link because you will be asked to write more annotated bibliographies in future modules.

Begin with an introduction that tells me what the hypothesis you developed for the Module 1 SLP is.

If you received feedback asking you to improve it, please use the improved version.

Use ProQuest or Ebsco to search for 3 articles related to the area of interest you chose in the Module 1 SLP.

They must be articles that would help you answer your research question.

In other words, they have to be related to what you are trying to find out, as if you were a researcher investigating this topic.

The articles must be from scholarly journals. They must be no more than 5 years old.

Save the articles because you will use them in other assignments.

Review the Background Information in this module regarding how to conduct a literature review.

3. Write an annotated bibliography for each article (not an essay).

Before you begin, please review a description and sample of an APA style annotated

bibliography at http://owl(dot)english(dot)purdue(dot)edu/owl/resource/614/03/ 

Save this link because you will be asked to write more annotated bibliographies in future modules.







1. If you suffer traumatic brain injury, your risk of having a stroke within three months may increase tenfold, according to a new study reported in Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association

"It's reasonable to assume that cerebrovascular damage in the head caused by a traumatic brain injury can trigger either a hemorrhagic stroke or an ischemic stroke,” said Herng-Ching Lin. It is the first study that pinpoints traumatic brain injury as a potential risk factor for subsequent stroke. Traumatic brain injury occurs when an external force such as a bump, blow or jolt to the head disrupts the normal function of the brain. Causes include falls, vehicle accidents, and violence. In the United States alone, approximately 2 in 106 individuals sustain a traumatic brain injury each year, according to 2004 statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Worldwide, traumatic brain injuries are a major cause of physical impairment, social disruption and death. After considering age and gender, patients with traumatic brain injury were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and heart failure than non-traumatic brain injury patients. Early neuroimaging examinations -- such as MRI -- and intensive medical monitoring support and intervention should be required following a traumatic brain injury, especially during the first few months and years, Lin said. Moreover, better health education initiatives could increase public awareness about the factors that cause strokes and the signs and symptoms of stroke in patients with traumatic brain injuries. “Stroke is the most serious and disabling neurological disorder worldwide," said Lin. "Our study leads the way in identifying stroke as an additional neurological problem that may arise following traumatic brain injury."

  1. Scientists from Melbourne's Howard Florey Institute have found special proteins that protect the brain after it has been damaged by a lack of oxygen, which occurs in conditions such as stroke, perinatal asphyxia, and near-drowning and traumatic brain injury.

Dr. Nicole Jones and her team discovered that during oxygen deprivation, or 'hypoxia', these proteins (HIF1 and PHD2) increase. These proteins regulate processes like the production of red blood cells and new blood vessels, and the flow of glucose to the brain. Therefore they are involved in preventing further brain damage and repairing damage caused by the initial injury. Dr. Jones said her discovery resulted from looking at how the body tries to protect itself and how the brain reacts when it experiences mild, non-damaging hypoxia. “I found that mild, non-damaging hypoxia actually protected the brain against a subsequent injury by activating certain proteins," Dr. Jones said. "Mild hypoxia appears to pre-condition neural tissues against a mass 'suicide' of healthy neurons after a stroke or other brain trauma. Dr. Jones is now testing drug candidates, and would like to develop new drugs that activate these protective proteins in the brain. Dr. Jones' research has been recently published in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism and Neuroscience Letters.

  1. A head injury can blight the chances of survival up to 13 years after the event, especially among younger adults, finds research published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry.

A head injury severity seems to make little difference over the longer term, the findings show. The research team tracked over 2,000 people, 757 of whom had sustained a head injury that required admission to one of five hospitals in Glasgow between 1995 and 1996. The rest of the group was split between those who had been admitted to hospital for other reasons, but for the same period as those with a head injury, and healthy people living in the community. The three groups were matched for age, gender, and levels of deprivation. In all, 40% of people (305) who had sustained a head injury were dead within 13 years of the event. This was higher than the rate among those admitted with other injuries (28%) and those in the community, almost one in five of whom died (19%). Although the heightened risk of death was highest in the first year after injury, it persisted for at least a further 12 years, when the head-injured were almost three times as likely to die of circulatory, respiratory, digestive, psychiatric and external causes as their community peers. Those who had sustained other injuries were also more likely to die of these causes, but the risk was not as high. The annual rate of death from all causes among the head-injured was almost 31 per 1,000 people compared with just fewer than 14 per 1,000 for those living in the community. As might be expected, those with more serious injuries were more likely to die than those with mild injuries during the critical first year. But those with mild head injury were also twice as likely to die. And more than a year later, the young and middle aged were far more likely to die than those who were older, when compared with those with no head injury.

Deaths among those aged 15 to 54 were more than six times higher than rates among those without a head injury, irrespective of potentially influential factors, such as gender and level of deprivation. Lifestyle factors before the injury, such as excessive alcohol intake and living alone or a history of mental health problems do affect survival, say the authors. But these factors also feature among those admitted for other injuries. There are no clear explanations for the higher death rates among the young and middle aged, say the authors.


Descriptive Statistics
While most of the patients die from the fatal injuries that they have sustained within the time span of about a decade, head injuries that affect the brain cells have claimed top ranking on that list. Majority of the adults that sustain head injuries die from these injuries years later, more than they die from other natural causes.
American Heart Association (2011, July 29). Traumatic brain injury linked with tenfold increase in stroke risk. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from  /releases/2011/07/110728162622.htm
According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention records in the year 2004, there are more than 106 persons that sustain head injuries each year. When considered alongside gender and age, patients that have had head injuries have a higher chance of developing diabetes, atria fibrillations, hypertension, and heart failure than those that have never had head injuries. As such the researcher suggests that more educations programs should come to build awareness of the likelihood patients with head injuries developing stroke. This study builds on the knowledge that head injuries reduce the life expectancy of the patients, as stated in the hypothesis.
Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne (2006, August 26). Oxygen Deprived Brains Repaired And Saved. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 2, 2013, from  /releases/2006/08/060824224201.htm
The H1F1 and PHD2 p...
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