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18 pages/≈4950 words
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APA
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
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Essay
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English (U.K.)
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Topic:

The Critical Analysis Of The Paradigms Associated With Normal Human Gait (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

Hi,
I have an essay (Master level) of 5000 words on "A critical analysis of the paradigms associated with normal human gait". I would like you to follow the plan provided as it's agreed and confirmed with my tutor.
Could you please provide me the first 1500 words before the 16May17 then another 1500 words before 18May17?
I have got my feedback of my first draft from my tutor please have a look at it. If any questions please don't hesitate to ask me.
Question: "A critical analysis of the paradigms associated with normal human gait "
Include
• Lower limb motion (axes) biomechanical paradigms, kinematic and kinetic parameters of normal gait.
• Include the Root and Dananberg paradigms and more recent kinematic analysis of foot function.
• Static assessment as a measure of dynamic foot function, accuracy and repeatability of these static measures, 
• Different methodologies used to measure dynamic foot function e.g. foot segmentation arrangement and marker placement, 2D and 3D assessment, small cohort numbers, accuracy and repeatability of dynamic kinematic measures, comparison between paradigms and dynamic measures and where possible comparison between dynamic measures between studies. 
• Support your work with research evidence from peer reviewed journal papers.
1. Critically appraise the basic concepts of kinematics and kinetics in human gait and relate these concepts to clinical practice.
2. Critically reflect on knowledge of the normal parameters of normal gait and function in the assessment of joints, both static and dynamic
3. Demonstrate the ability to collect, organise, critically analyse and interpret literature and experimental data.
Assignment Guidelines
Present your work in Ariel font 12 with double line spacing
For referencing guidelines APA 6.
Please see attached:
Question, Plan, Tutors feedback, articles and journals for information and references. books " A Guide to research for Podiatrists by Jackie Campbell", Whittle's Gait Analysis Fifth edition, Assessment of the lower limb by Linda M. Merriman, Warren Turner".
Can you please ask the writer to start reading the following in order:
1- The question of the essay.
2- The Plan
3- you'll find all the information you will need reading the first paradigm on the following PhD thesis of Hanna Jarvis. Then each file is arranged chronologically-Paradigms by authors name and year.

source..
Content:


The Critical Analysis of the Paradigms associated with Normal Human Gait
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Introduction
The human foot is a complex structure consisting of bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, intrinsic, extrinsic muscles, nerves, and blood vessels, all playing a crucial role in the biomechanical function of the lower limb. These components of the foot structure provide the foundation of support while one is standing, walking, and running. The foot behaves like a spring by storing and releasing energy by use of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles in the arch (McKeon, Hertel, Bramble and Davis, 2014). According to McKeon, Hertel, Bramble and Davis (2014), arch stability is a core element for the effective and efficient functioning of the foot. In addition, according to Petcu Daniel and Anca Colda (2012), the foundation of gait analysis study is based on the proposed paradigms of foot function by the association between the function of anatomical segments considered and the relevant structure.
According to Daniel and Colda (2012), the most recognised paradigms are the Neutral Position of the Subtalar Joint developed by Merton Root, Sagittal Plane Facilitation Theory developed by Haward Dananberg, Tissue Stress Theory developed by McPoil and Hunt (1995), and Neuromechanical theory developed by Benno Nigg. The modelling of lower limb biomechanics is initiated by clinical reflection on the gait followed by gait analysis, kinetic and kinematic intricacy using multiple sets and models (Daniel, Colda, 2012). Daniel and Colda (2012) suggest that podiatrists need to understand the structure of the foot and the kinetics and kinematics of normal human gait. This enables them to assess, diagnose and treat any medical conditions of the foot, ankle and lower extremity. This essay will critically analyse the different methods of gait analysis and paradigms in a chronological manner associated with normal human gait starting with the Root’s paradigm to the most recent theories. These paradigms will also be compared and contrasted critically for the better understanding of podiatrists under the normal functioning of the foot and ankle. The first area of discussion is Gait analysis.
Gait Analysis
Human gait can be defined literally as locomotion that comes as a result of movement of human limbs. Human beings possess the ability to walk upright on two legs or rather referred to as bipedalism (Arundhati G Thakurta, Rauf Iqbal, Shreya Maulik, 2016). According to Thakuta, Igbal, and Maulik (2016), alternating movements of sinuous of different sections of the body occur during the gait process. Differences in movement patterns of limbs, general velocity, varied forces, energy in motion and potential energy and also variations in surface contact characterise the various gait patterns (Thakuta et al., 2016). Studies indicate that there are changes in the activities of muscles with a variation of gait pattern in varying situations. Thakuta et al (2016) further suggest that there are various categories of human gaits such as natural and trained gaits. Besides, human beings use the natural gaits instinctively such as normal walking on feet and running while trained gaits are acquired and are non-instinctive such hand walking. In addition, the walking process varies among individuals and due to different environmental conditions. For instance, in an investigation by Tommy Oberg, Alek Karsznia and Kurt Oberg (1993), the results indicate that gait velocity and step length was lower and step frequency was higher in women more than men. We have different measures of gait referred to as temporal-spatial parameters that constitute speed of walking, length and time of a stride, length and time of a step, phases of stances and swings (Thakurta et al., 2016).
The gait...

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