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BHS420 Module 2 Case (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
In the Module 1 case assignment, you were provided with an article to summarize. For this Case assignment in Module 2, you will write a summary about a scholarly article of your choice. Note: This assignment asks for more information than you provided in Case 1, so please be sure to read the instructions. This is an exercise in critical thinking -- it is not appropriate to simply copy or paraphrase the article's abstract. Write a 1 - 2 page summary that includes the following: Begin your paper with an introduction. Your summary will be similar to an abstract, and must include subheadings for each of the sections listed below. Reference: This should be so accurate that the reader can go directly from the abstract to the original article. Give a complete APA style reference. Kinds of Research: Identify the kind of research, i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, observational (descriptive, case study, historical, etc.). Although the article may not be a clear example of one of these, it can usually be classified under one of these. Purpose: Sometimes the purpose is stated as an aim, an objective, or a goal. At other times, it is incorporated in a statement of a problem, leaving the reader to infer the purpose has a stated problem, a purpose, or both. In case the purpose is inferred, you may state it in your own words. Design: If the article is an experimental or quasi-experimental research, it is usually possible to identify the design of the study. Descriptive and historical research articles may or may not have a design that can be categorized. Try to identify the design for each article. Comment if you are unable to determine the design, and explain why. Participants: The term “participant” refers to the sample studied. Under this heading you should include a description of ages, sexes, socio-economic status, school grade, mental level, number, and/or any other demographic characteristics given in the article to describe the particular sample used in the study. Procedure: Sometimes the procedure is referred to as the “method” and includes a description of control techniques, measuring devices, materials used and ways of proceeding, in attempting to achieve the purpose or purposes of the study. Are measures of validity and reliability reported by the author? If so, what measures were used? When such are not reported it should be so stated. Variables: Identify the variables in the study. Identify the independent and dependent variables. The independent variables are usually the cause, stimulus, antecedent treatment or the identified groups (males-females; young couples, middle aged couples, mature couples; Baptist, Catholics, Methodists, Mormans; upper class, middle class, lower class; etc.) whereas the dependent variable is usually the effect, response, or consequence. Level of Measurement (data): Although this is often unclear, you should try to identify the level of measurement such as nominal, ordinal, interval, and/or ratio. Instrumentation: The names of the instruments (if any) used in the study should be listed. This would include such things as: The Maryland Parent Attitude Survey (MPAS), the Locke-Wallas Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Taylor-Johnson Temperament Test (TJTT), or other tests named in the article. Sample: Sample refers to whether the sample(s) is related (dependent) or non-related (independent). Related sample usually means that the different scores represent the same individuals or logically connected individuals (spouses, daughters, sons, mothers, fathers, etc.) whereas independent samples refer to different groups. Sampling Technique: Sampling technique refers to such things as random sampling, cluster sampling, selected sampling, stratified sampling, time sampling, volunteers, solicited, snowball sampling, intact groups, etc. Statistical Tests: List the statistical tests used in the article; examples might be chi square (x2), t-test, f-test, Mann-Whitney, etc. Results or Findings: These should be confined to actual data reported by the author. Conclusions: Conclusions are the generalizations that the author believes the results or findings justify. These should be expressed in the language of the author. Critique: Please comment on the study's strengths and any possible weaknesses. READING ASSIGNMENT Areas of research - Genetically modified food - Relationship between Male circumcision and HIV infection - Effect of climatic change on Human health Genetically modified food Since they is a debate on the topic on the genetically food, for its resistance to climate change and fighting hunger in an easy way to eradicate challenges faced on countries which are affected with climate change. On the other hand, there have been heated debate on benefits of GMO as well as its effects on human health (Skanke,2009). This topic is of interested to me because the genetically food is becoming popular and yet no intensive research has been carried on the long term effect in human body when consumed for a long a time thus the end result on human activities. Relationship between Male circumcision and HIV infection HIV infection has been a major disaster in the World. Male circumcision has a trend in various world continents mainly in African countries which have been a taboo in some community to undergo male circumcision. Research has however proved that male circumcision lowers the prevalence rate of HIV infection. On the other hand, uncircumcised men have got higher chances of HIV infection when they have unprotected sex which is attributed to the conducive environment created by presence of the fore skin/prepuce. This topic is of interest to me because the major community which are not practicing the Male circumcision have been educated on the chances of the acquiring the infectious disease and how to reduce their risk of infection. It will thus be of importance to understand in-depth how such communities have incorporated this fact and actions they are taking to change their cultural beliefs and whether more men are getting circumcised. Effect of climatic change on Human health Climate change on human health has been another serious issue due to high emission of gases into the atmosphere thus altering the climate change in most part of the continent. Most countries have been affected by the human activities that affect the climate and in turn affecting human health (Maslin, 2009). Other gases released into the atmosphere are believed to cause a number of health complication, leading to higher economic burden to a country when dealing with aftermath of health complications caused by climate change (Weart, 2003). The reason I am choosing the topic is because there has a been a debate on climate change on affected countries and on how to reduce the emission of gases which leads to the climate change which in turn affects Human health. It will therefore be of great importance to evaluate how world populace is prepared to minimize and reduce excess emission of unfriendly gases to the atmosphere. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD Genetically modified foods are foods resulting from organisms whose genetic materials (DNA) have been adapted in a way that does not occur in nature, e.g. through the introduction of a gene from a diverse organism (Freedman, 2009). Presently available GM foods stem mostly from plants, but in the prospect foods derived from GM microorganisms or GM animals are probably to be introduced on the market. Most presented genetically modified crops have been developed to improve yield, through the introduction of resistance to plant diseases or of increased lenience of herbicides. WHAT I EXPECT TO LEARN. The effect of GMO foods on human health when consumed over a long time. The nutrient in the genetically modified food on human Health Potential effectiveness of GMO on food production, hence reduction in hunger across the globe Research question. Does use of genetically modified food have negative effects on human health when used over a long period of time? Research hypothesis H01. Use of genetically modifies food over a long period of time doesn't have any negative health effects on its users. In the future, genetic modification could be aimed at varying the nutrient content of food, dropping its allergenic potential, or improving the effectiveness of food production systems. All GM foods should be assessed before being allowed on the market. REFERENCES Freedman, J. (2009). Geneticall Modified Food:How biotechnology is changing what we eat. New York: Rosen publishing group. maslin, M. (2007). global warming: causes, effects and the future. USA: MBI publishing company. skanke, J. (2009). Geneticall Modified Food. USA: Gale publisher. weart, S. R. (2003). The discovery of global warming. USA: library of congress. source..
Content:

BHS420 Module 2 Case
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(30 July, 2011)
BHS420 Module 2 Case
Introduction
The article to be summarized is Spencer, Weart. (2011) Global warming: How skepticism became denial. Bulletin of the atomic scientists. 67(1): 41-50. According to Maslin 2007, global warming has been a topic that has been there for many years beginning 1896 where a physical chemist estimated that the level of the global temperature would rise with several degrees due to increased in level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere if it happens to double (Spencer, 2011). This topic of the global warming happened to be one of the greatest and most passionate in the history of science as measures were put to mitigate its effects. This article covers how skepticism about the issue began and theories that were put across to unravel the whole idea of global warming. It discusses the policies that were put in place to ensure that this was arrested and how skepticism turned to denial. The issue of personal attack where the issue of global warming turned political is also covered especially in the mitigation process.
Kinds of research
The research is historical where it shows the history of global warming with dates indicated. For example, the article covers how the events of global warming recoiled since 1896 to date giving a lot of historical back ground, the scientist conferences held like the one that was in Toronto in1988 that came up with a conclusion that global warming posed a lot of danger in many nations (Weart, 2003).
Purpose
The purpose of the article is to show the effect of skepticism that affected the arrest of global warming at the initial stage as it took a while to convince people that warming due to human activities was likely.
Design
...
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