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Articles Review: Calvert, W. J. (Essay Sample)


Modules 9A and 9B involve your reading and examining two research articles from the literature and summarizing/critiqueing the two articles.

Attached are three articles for you to choose from for the assignment.  Select two of the three articles for performing two written critiques and write a 2-3 page critique (single spaced) using the outline and headings listed below:

 (24 points --3 points for each of the eight sections listed below)

(a) Titles:  List the APA reference for each of the two selected articles as the heading for the assignment.

(b) Purposes:  Describe the Purpose for each article and note whether the article is descriptive or inferential and discuss the differences in the two purposes.

(c) Research Questions:  State the Research Questions for each article and discuss the key words within the research questions that indicate the type of statistical procedures inherent in the research.  Compare and contrast the research questions from the two articles.

(d) Samples/Settings:  Describe the samples/subjects/ and settings for each of the two articles you have selected and compare/contrast the two settings/subjects/samples.

(e) Research Hypotheses:  State the hypotheses for each of the two articles (if applicable) and tell why the hypotheses align with the Research Question(s) or why there may not be any Research Hypotheses.

(f) Statistical Procedures:  Discuss the statistical procedures used for each article and tell "why" these procedures align with the Research Question and/or Hypotheses.  Note the key words in the Research Question or Study Purposes that align with the selection of the appropriate statistics. 

(g) Findings:  Discuss the findings of the two articles and align the findings with the statistical proceures and the Research Questions/Purposes for each of the two studies. Compare and contrast the findings of the two articles within the framework of the initial purposes of the respective studies.

(h) Implications of the Findings: Discuss the implications of the findings  for each of the two studies and compare and contrast the implications relative to "describing" versus "inferring" and "generalizing" versus "replicating" the studies.    



Articles Review
Calvert, W. J., & Isaac-Savage, E. P. (2013). Motivators and barriers to participating in health promotion behaviors in Black men. Western journal of nursing research, 35(7), 829-848.
Krause-Parello, C. A., & Gulick, E. E. (2013). Situational factors related to loneliness and loss over time among older pet owners. Western journal of nursing research, 35(7), 905-919.
The main aim of the first study was to identify factors that affect health promoting behaviors among black men earning low income. There were various affecting the health status that were considered in determining how health-promoting behaviors are affected by various motivators barriers in choosing health promotion lifestyles. This is a descriptive study taking into account the barriers and motivators to health promotion lifestyles, where the authors first considered the sociodemographic of the participants. The study results are specific to black males and the researchers did not generalize the results, unlike inferential studies which would generalize study results. In any case, the authors tabulated the mean, standard deviation for the motivators and barriers subscales and health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP) (Calvert& Isaac-Savage, 2013).
The aim of the second research was to identify how situational factors as well as coping mechanisms and pet attachment influence loneliness among older pet owners who experience loss over time. The study relied on descriptive statistics, and the authors took into account the age, marital status and demographics of the participants to understand how loneliness was manifested among the elderly. The study contrasts with those utilizing inferential statistics as results can also not be generalized for all pet owners who are older, but the participants also had different marital and social status. One of the main differences between descriptive and inferential statistics is that descriptive statistics use population parameters for estimation, but the information from inferential statistics can be inferred from a sample. As such, in both studies there was no need to take more than one sample that would have helped the researchers to make generalizations.
Research Questions
In the study by Calvert& Isaac-Savage (2013), the main research question guiding the study was the extent to which health promoting behaviors were related to motivators as well as barriers in their participation in the behaviors. The key terms in the study were HPBs, and participants’ perceived motivators and barriers. HPBs are the health promoting behaviors, whereby the study focused on factors motivating participants to rely on HBPs, and those factors that limited their use of HBPs. The statistical analysis then focused on the participants who are low income black men without generalizing results. The key words in the study on loneliness in older people include loneliness, older adults, and loss, coping and pet attachment research questions. The two studies share similarities since there purposes are related to the research question. However, in the study by Calvert& Isaac-Savage, the research question generalizations the relationships between variables in a single question.
The first question in the second study focused on whether losses and loneliness differed for different situational factors (Krause-Parello & Gulick, 2013)
The extent to which the type of loss and time period differed for older adults who experienced loss (Krause-Parello & Gulick, 2013).
To establish whether there was a relationship between loneliness and situational factors among older adults (Krause-Parello & Gulick, 2013)
To what extent do situational factors affect loneliness, and the extent to which pet attachment and coping affec...
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