3 pages/≈825 words
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Annotated Bibliography - Health and Medicine (Essay Sample)
dear perfect eassy,i would like the use of Australian english when writing the essay. i would also like the essay to be as close to the example provided. the referencing style should be like the example provided (APA Style). source..
Health and Medicine
Health and Medicine
McMurray, J. J, Adamopoulos. S, Anker, S.D. et al. (2012). ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J (14):1787-847.
McMurray, J. J, Adamopoulos. S, Anker, S.D. et al. 2012 in their study identified that a patient suffering chronic heart failure depicts different symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Management of chronic heart failure depends on severity of the condition. In severe stage of this condition, symptoms include shortness of breath, leg swelling, and exercise intolerance. Notably, there is indeed no system of diagnostic criteria agreed on as the gold standards for addressing chronic heart failure. However, a variety of approaches is available for mitigating the effects of chronic heart failure on patients. Framingham criteria and duke criteria among others are systems, which clinicians use in management of chronic heart failure resulting from ischemic cardiomyoparthy and hypertension. Palliative care is necessary and appropriate on patients with symptoms of chronic heart failure. Hospice is as well a good alternative of handling chronic heart failure. This is evident that a variety of measures that tested and proved appropriate are jointly applicable in managing chronic heart failure on patients.
Different methods are usable in supporting clinical diagnosis of acute and chronic heart failure. Echocardiography uses ultrasound to determine stroke volume and the end-diastolic volume. Echocardiography can as well identify valvular heart diseases and assess state of pericardium. Electrophysiology uses the electrocardiogram in identification of arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease as well as right and left ventricular hypertrophy and other similar abnormalities (McMurray, J. J, Adamopoulos. S, Anker, S.D. et al. 2012). Blood tests are useful as a diagnosis method. They should be routinely conducted and include electrolytes, measures of renal function, liver function tests and thyroid function tests among others. Angiography is well applicable in acute and chronic heart diagnosis. Heart failure may result from coronary heart disease. Coronary catheterization can identify possibilities for revascularization through bypass surgery. Treating acute and chronic heart failure includes lifestyle as well as pharmacological modalities. Acute decompensation has the immediate goals as re-establishment of adequate perfusion and delivery of oxygen to end organs.
McMurray, J. J, Adamopoulos. S, Anker, S.D. et al. 2012 recommend that immediate treatment involve combination of vasodilators like nitroglycerin, diuretics like furosemide and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. ...
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