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Problem Solving and Metacognitive Strategies for Novice Students of Grade 4 (Essay Sample)

APA guideline 1\" margins all the way around. Must reference both articles and book at least twice each in paper Sternberg, R. J. (2003). What is an “expert student?” Educational Researcher, 32(8), 5-9. and Mayer, R. E. (1998). Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of problem solving.Instructional Science, 26, 49-63. and Gredler, M. E. (2009). Learning and Instruction: Theory into Practice (6e). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill/Pearson. source..

Problem Solving and Metacognitive Strategies for Novice Students of Grade 4[Name of Student][Name of Institute]
Metacognition is important but still it is an overlooked element of learning. Effective learning involves planning and goal setting along with monitoring of progress and adapting when needed. These activities are metacognitive in nature because teaching to students with such skills can improve students` learning CITATION Yen11 \l 1033 \m Ste03 (Yen & Lee, 2011; Sternberg, 2003). The paper is providing the metacognition and learning strategies for the novice students of grade IV.
Self - Regulated Learning in Novice Learners and Expert Learners
Expert learners consider their learning goals with plan and monitoring of their own learning as they can implement their plans. On the other hand, novice learners do not possess explicit learning goals with the failure in plans and they have one learning strategy, which they implement without thinking about the appropriateness of situation. Teachers are required to expand their methods of teaching and instructing students. It is said that the teachers are required to teach and identify expert and novice students in such a way that is closely aligned with the ways through which students can be identified in different fields CITATION Ste03 \l 1033 (Sternberg, 2003). Without any surprise, novice learners of 4th grade are disappointed in the results of their studying for English Tests, whereas, expert learners are satisfied with their results. It can be said that expert learners are involve in self-regulated learning, which begins with the planning and goal-setting while considering the time constraints, strengths and weaknesses regarding learning tasks along with the motivation for learning CITATION May03 \l 1033 (Mayer R. E., 2003). The reasonable goals along with planed strategies of learning can enable the expert learners to implement their plans while monitoring the results according to his or her efforts for studies. The metacognitive skills include the strategies based on motivation, interest, and self-efficacy. These type of strategies are required for the students to gain success in their educational fields CITATION May03 \l 1033 (Mayer R. E., 2003). However, the theories of learning are found to be evolved with the use of addressing the complexities of human learning along with the cognitive development. The concepts of Vygotsky`s theory are providing the clear role of the teacher and subject while learning in cognitive development. If the selected strategies work well for novice learners and expert learners, then learners can continue and if not, then he or she can make adjustments and monitor the results until they are aligned with learning goals CITATION May03 \l 1033 (Mayer R. E., 2003).
Strategies for Metacognition and Problem Solving
Following are some of the strategies for metacognition and problem solving for the novice and expert learners. Acc...
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