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Present a paper on comparative analysis of major theories of child development.(Erikson, Freud, Piaget, Vygotsky) (Essay Sample)

Present a paper on comparative analysis of major theories of child development. The analysis should include four major theories of child development(Erikson, Freud, Piaget, Vygotsky). The analysis should be performed along the following lines: A) Major theoretical contentions: B) Understanding of the role of society and culture in child development: C) Understanding of the role of children\\\'s activity in their development: D) Major studies and empirical data supporting the theory: E) Major studies and empirical data challenging this theory. source..
Comparative Analysis of Major Child Development [Student`s name] [Professor`s name] [Institutions] [Unit name] [Date] Comparative Analysis of Major Child Development The physical, mental, emotional and psychological changes that occur in an individual from the time of conception to death constitute an individual`s development which is used interchangeably with growth because the two processes are interrelated but other times they can be distinguished as different interties. Development is a smooth progressive series of changes that occur in a predictable pattern as a result of interaction between biological and environmental factors. Emerging and expanding of capacities of an individual to provide for greater facility in functioning confined to the qualitative changes to the person representing in the quality of function that accompany growth as the child grows he/she develops physically, emotionally, socially, intellectually and morally thus termed as child development. All forms of development takes place in stages and one stage emerges from another without any real line of demarcation because such divisions are artificial; stage here describing the periods in which the function and relative emphasis of a given type of behavior differ from those other periods of life. The principles of development indicate the whole process of "establishment which include heredity and environment which sends the limit to the individual`s development in the extent to which it`s possible to him or her to develop" (Elkind, 1976 p. 67). Secondly, it`s a directional process and follows specific direction or trend both the cephalocaudal where establishment starts from anterior to posterior end and proximodistal where development begins from the central line of the body to the outermost distant parts of the body; being a whole process the aspects of development are interrelated and interdependent meaning if a child is retarded, his behavior may be retarded too; it`s an accumulated process, being gradual, additive process where changes don`t emerge suddenly so past events and experiences have implications for the future life. Moreover it proceeds from general to specific and proceeds from structural to functional development. So child development is as a result of maturation and learning and is a continuous process but not always smooth and gradual because there are periods of growth spurt (accelerated growth) at infancy and adolescence but at adulthood it slows again. The child development from dependency to autonomy requires satisfaction of both the physiological needs e.g. need for food, air, sleep and rest and self control. On the other hand the psycho-sociological needs which are secondary needs e.g. need for affection and sense to be loved, security, new experiences and intellectual stimulation, praise and recognition and responsibility in allowing a child to have some independence. The analysis sets its basis on the four major theories and their theoretical contentions of Erick Erikson, Piaget, Freud and vygotsky. Considering Erick Erikson, who synthesized Freud`s work and his own theories to come up with psychosocial theory of personality development which focused on entire lifespan of an individual from birth to old age. He developed the idea of crisis/ conflict which must be resolved in constructive and satisfactory manner for further development to be enhanced. If they could be resolved unsatisfactorily, the negative quality will interfere with further development which manifests itself in personality muljustment. According to Erikson, the principle function of the ego is to establish and maintain a sense of identity that`s the complex inner state that includes a sense of one`s individuality and uniqueness as well as a sense of wholeness and continuity with the past and future. "Identity of well ...
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