Chapters 2 and 3: Multiple Intelligences, Multiple Learning Styles (Essay Sample)
It's a master project essay, I'll give you the chapter one and please continue to finish the chapter two and three.source..
This section will review the available literature on the use of video materials in classrooms as well as explore the theory that supports this. The use of video materials in the classroom is not a new concept as many may perceive it. The utilization of audio-visual materials dates back to World War II when they were used as training materials for soldiers. Since then instructors and policy makers have been acknowledging the value of video materials to teach students. Audio-visual materials are believed to be catching the attention of learners, enhance their experience and increase their motivational levels. Since World War II, content and technology have been developed to increase the value of video materials in classrooms.
The use of video instruction materials in the classroom is beneficial to both teachers and learners. It encourages body movements and strengthens control. The Chinese culture has a famous saying that says, “One sighted is worth a hundred words” which implies that learners take consume knowledge through their intellects (Jain, 2004). Another maxim which states that “if we here we forget, if we see we remember, and if we do something we know it” exists to advocate for the use of video learning materials in classrooms. Initially, there was a pervasive belief which is receiving huge criticism from a wide range of recent studies, that video viewing is passive in nature where the viewers are active during the time they are watching it and with time it will displace any academic developments. However, majority of the recent studies have supported the theory that video watching is an active process and can be “an ongoing and highly interconnected process of monitoring and comprehending” as well as “a complex, cognitive activity that develops and matures with the child's development to promote learning” (Marshall, 2002).
According to Mayer (2001), although video watching tends to be pervasive, it involves the high cognitive process which is important in learning. He asserts that, “Well-designed multimedia instructional messages can promote active cognitive processing in students even when learners seem to be behaviourally inactive,” (Mayer, 2001, p. 19). Various studies have identified that content and context of the videos are important elements in enhancing the activeness of the learners. Therefore, the content should be designed according to the ages of the students because it determines the successfulness of the learner than the time spent in watching it. There are other various aspects of video materials that have proved to contribute to active student learning, they include, the utilization of multiple content delivery, their emotional appeal to the viewers, and address to the various forms of intelligence.
Gardner developed the multiple intelligences theory in which he describes that individuals possess though in varying strengths and preferences, eight discrete intelligences: spatial, interpersonal, linguistic, musical, intrapersonal, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic and naturalistic (Gardner, 2006). The strengths and weaknesses that exist in these intelligences are the ones that dictates the manner in which information is absorbed and interpreted by individuals (Marshall, 2002). This departs from the traditional theories that recognized the verbal and computational abilities only.
According to Gardner's theory, the manner in which the video materials are conveyed, influences the ability of individuals to learn and instructors should consider all these intelligences when planning the lessons. Although the textbooks take a l...
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