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Effective Approaches and Challenges in using Informal Learning (Essay Sample)


• Consider both teaching and learning
• Consider assessment, where applicable
• Refer to relevant educational policies, including the National Curriculum and/or EYFS
• Make reference to international research studies
• Outline the main theoretical issues in current debates
• Link theory to practice, giving illustrative examples
• Draw on your own experience to illustrate and reflect on key issues and debates
• Identify the implications for your own practice
Writing style
• Define key terms
• Provide clear evidence to support your arguments
• Organise the content of your assignment to create a coherent discussion
• Create a balanced argument and highlight different perspectives
• Refer to recommended readings and resources
Indicative Basic Module Reading List
Alexander, R. (ed) (2010) Children, their World, their Education: Final Report and Recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review. London: Routledge.
Arthur, J. & Cremin, T. (2010) Learning to Teach in the Primary School. London: Routledge.
Aubrey, K. and Riley, A. (2016) Understanding and Using Educational Theories. London: Sage
Bates, J. (2011) Education Policy, Practice and the Professional. London: Continuum.
Birrell, G, Taylor, H. & Ward, H. (2010) Succeeding in your Primary PGCE. London: Sage
Cooper, H. (ed) (2011) Professional Studies in Primary Education. London: Sage.
Conteh, J. (2012) Teaching Bilingual and EAL Learners in Primary Schools. London: Learning Matters.
Cox, S. (2011) New Perspectives in Primary Education: Meaning and Purpose in Learning and Teaching. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Denby, N., Butroyd, R., Swift, H., Price, J. & Glazzard, J. (2008) Masters Level Study in Education: A Guide to Success for PGCE students. Maidenhead: McGrawHill.
Fisher, R. (2005) Teaching Children to Learn (2nd edition). London: Nelson Thornes.
Fisher, R. (2009) Creative Dialogue: Talk for Thinking in the Classroom. London: Routledge.
Galton, M. (2007) Learning and Teaching in the Primary Classroom. London: Sage.
Hansen, A. (ed) (2010) Primary Professional Studies. London: Learning Matters.
Hicks, D. & Holden, C. (2007) Teaching the Global Dimension. London: Routledge.
Leung, C. & Creese, A. (2010) English as an Additional Language: Approaches to Teaching Linguistic Minority Students. London: Sage.
Lewis, A. & Norwich, B. (2004) Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Moyles, J. (2007) Beginning Teaching, Beginning Learning in Primary Education (3rd edition). Maidenhead: McGrawHill.
Paige-Smith, A. & Craft, A. (2008) Developing Reflective Practice in the Early Years. Maidenhead, McGrawHill
Ridley, D. (2008) The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. London, Sage.
Safford, K., Stacey, M., & Hancock, R. (2010) Small-Scale Research in Primary Schools: A Reader for Learning and Professional Development. London: Routledge.
Thomas, G. (2009) How to do Your Research Project: A Guide for Students in Education and Applied Social Sciences. London: Sage.
Wallace, B. (2002) Teaching Thinking Skills across the Primary Curriculum. London: David Fulton.
Webb, R. (2010) Researching Primary Education: Methods and Issues. London: Routledge.
Yelland, N. (2007) Rethinking Learning with New Technologies in Education. London: Routledge.
Digital sources
In addition to the books listed above, there are a number of useful on-line, digital sources.
YouTube: search for 21st Education for a number of thought provoking videos, including ones that are called either ‘Shift Happens’ or ‘Did You Know?’ that are highly recommended. The original version was posted on You Tube in 2007. There are a number of versions, some with USA statistics and some with UK statistics. The original UK version can be found at http://www(dot)youtube(dot)com/watch?v=QeoKQbT8BKs but for more up-to-date information look out for versions 3 or 4.
Teachers’ TV: the former Teachers’ TV website has been broken up and many programmes are now available via other websites. Teachers Media is the team that brought teachers TV and has the most comprehensive list at https://www(dot)youtube(dot)com/user/TeachersMedia. It has a useful search engine to find videos by e.g. age phase, subject, topic.

Teacher Training Resource Bank: this website was closed, but the resources [Multiverse (Diversity and achievement) Behaviour4learning, and Special Education Needs] have been archived and can be found via this link: http://webarchive(dot)nationalarchives(dot)gov(dot)uk/20101021152907/http:/www(dot)ttrb(dot)ac(dot)uk/
Please note the website refers to the old QTS (‘Q’) standards, but the materials are still relevant.
Materials on citizenship can be located on the citizED website. citizED is an organisation, previously funded by the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA). It is a collaboration within higher education for all providers of initial teacher education in England. The citizED website is available at: http://www(dot)citized(dot)info/
TED Talks: Videos of talks given by a range of people eminent in their field. There are a number of education talks here, two of which are:
Ken Robinson on ‘How schools kill creativity’: http://www(dot)ted(dot)com/talks/ken_robinson_says_schools_kill_creativity.html
(also available on YouTube as a brilliant animation http://www(dot)youtube(dot)com/watch?v=zDZFcDGpL4U) &
The author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie talking about ‘The Danger of a Single Story’. This focuses on how difference is perceived in the context of Africa, but also about stereotypes, prejudice, bias and how these are unwittingly perpetuated through the ‘stories’ we tell: http://www(dot)ted(dot)com/talks/lang/eng/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story.html


Discuss the Effective Approaches and Challenges in using Informal Learning for Children's Educational Development
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Discuss the Effective Approaches and Challenges in using Informal Learning for Children's Educational Development
With an enhanced focus on educational development globally, educationists cheer students to participate in an informal learning environment. It upsurges their interest level to explore new experiences with outside and self-learning. According to Sparr, Knipfer, and Willems (2017), informal learning is defined as the unintended learning approach and has no restrictive or formal boundaries. Thus, it relies on different forms, including incidental, social, and self-directed learning. Based on the importance of educational development and informal learning in economic progress, state authorities are interested in growing educational opportunities for students and workers to lift outcomes. Likewise, the UK government stressed the Learning Outside manifesto under the education-and-skills department to develop children with informal education (Baker, 2014). With the potential investigation by Lannon (2018), children learn problem-solving skills with keen observation and first-hand experiences because it boosts their morale and knowledge to improve their mental capabilities by exploring the surrounding.
The first educationist introduced informal education by highlighting Dewey's history by learning practical experiences from social interactions. Likewise, Livingstone pointed to the concept of implicit and associate learning by exploring different situations through informal learning (Zhu et al., 2020). The educational theory further supports informal education as it is productive and advances cognitive, emotional, and social skills among learners. Accordingly, educational institutes with government holders value the self-learning approach to grow learning experiences among children. Correspondingly, educationists immensely encourage informal-learning for children's educational development. It backs them to understand the scenario with behavioral, recreational, social, and academic disciplines, which improve children's compassion, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem (Bowker, 2010). In this way, informal education helps children uplift their creativity and practice experiment practically to add value to the learning experience.

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