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Discussion biology: photosynthesis and respiration (Essay Sample)

1)How is photosynthesis different from respiration? (125 words) 2)How do plants and animals differ in generating and storing energy? (How is energy generated in each? How is energy stored in each?) (125 words) 3)What does the first law of thermodynamics tell us about perpetual motion? (125 words) 4)Some bacteria acquire energy from sunlight. Would you expect these bacteria to have chlorophyll? Explain. (2oo words) source..

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Question 1
In order for plants to perform their functions, the process of photosynthesis and respiration are required. These processes have common characteristics, but they are different. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use sun energy to make food in a chemical form. By capturing sun energy, the plant is able to build sugar molecule known as glucose made from combining carbon dioxide from the air and hydrogen molecule from breaking water molecule using light energy releasing oxygen into the air. The process of photosynthesis takes place in chloroplast that contains chlorophyll that converts carbon dioxide, water and light energy to produce glucose and oxygen (UCSB Science Line, 2013). Respiration is the process that takes place in the mitochondria where chemical energy in the glucose molecule in converted in form that is utilizable for growth and development of plants. The glucose molecule is broken down into smaller forms and energy is released in form of ATP. This process requires oxygen during the rearrangement of molecules releasing carbon dioxide into the air and ATP for use by plants for growth and development.
Question 2
The generation and storage of energy in both plants and animals is different in that, plants are the primary producers of energy through the process of photosynthesis. Animals can not generate their own energy and thus depend on plants for energy hence they are consumers. Animals take a concentrated from of energy from plants and therefore to be located where is sustainable supply of energy from plants (Viau, 2003). Plants generate their energy from combining carbon dioxide from the air water and light energy from the sun, while animals rely on the energy formed by plants to survive. The excess energy that is captured by plants and animals is stored for later use. Animals store extra energy in form of fat which is metabolized during hibernation and during limited access of energy for a reliable supply. Plants store their extra energy in their special stores such as tubers and tap roots in addition to storing in their seeds. The energy storage has buds that ensure growth of new plants using this extra energy.
Question 3
Perpetual motion is the motion that continues indefinitely without any external source of energy which can run forever unless subject to an external force. According to the first law of thermodynamics which is the application of conservation of energy stating that total energy of an isolated system is constant (Atkins & De Paula, 2010). A perpetual motion machine produces work without the input of energy is contrary to the law because machine that is able to extract energy from perpetual sources moves perpetually until the source of energy runs down. Such machines can not be considered to be perpetual since they extract energy from an external source and are not isolated systems.
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