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5 pages/≈1375 words
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APA
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Education
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English (U.K.)
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Education. Classical theories and organisational culture (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
Comment on the statement that "Classical theories are still in operation in the 21st Century Schools.” Examine how the presence of professionals and organisational culture could be utilised to affect changes to the bureaucratic model of management. You are response should be incorporated in a critical paper of 1350-1500 word in A4 paper with double spacing. The paper should be prepared similar to an article in one of the journals in educational administration, starting with an “introduction' or ‘An Overview' by focussing on the paper, followed by discussion on a logical sequence of sub headings, ending with a ‘conclusion'. You are advised to use Harvard or APA referencing style accurately and consistently in your paper. P1. Indicate the word count to show that the word limit has been observed. source..
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Running head: Education
Classical theories and organisational culture
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Classical theories and organisational culture
The 20th century experienced significant changes in the way professional managers carried out their tasks, mostly basing their management decisions on a certain theory or a favoured guru. As the 21st century progresses, Free (2010) say that these theories are still relevant and specific theorists have continued to command huge influence. In addition, when professionals and organisational culture is utilised fully in all sectors of the organisation, it will be possible to affect changes to bureaucratic model of management. Since organisations continue to face unpredictable changes in economic, technological and political factors, organisational culture is one important source of agility that can eliminate wasteful bureaucracies (Davidson, 2007). This document will analyse how classical theories continue to influence 21st Century Schools and the importance of organisational culture on affecting changes in bureaucratic model of management.
Classical theorists and 21st Century trends
Nicole Machiavelli (1946-1527) is a classical theorist who lived in Florence, Italy. He believed on the notion that “the end justifies the means”, and that a leader must exploit everything at his disposal to achieve his ends. Although some analysts consider Machiavellian theories as corrupt, immoral and devious, several successful managers continue to use his methods either explicitly or implicitly. For instance, Harold Geneen was from 1959 to1977 the CEO of International Telephone Telegraph (Hueglin, 2008). He was a relentless workaholic who used an autocratic style of management. He had little interests on leisure and expected all workers to follow suit. He harassed his top executives and subjected them to cross-examination and humiliation. However, he gained huge success, creating an empire that acquired 250 companies. During his time, ITT’s profits rose from $29 million to $550 million. Most statements that he made are similar to the principles held by Machiavelli on the means that a leader should use to achieve his goals.
Henri Fayol (1841-1925) is a classical school theorist renowned for the management concept that puts emphasis on ‘command and control’. According to Fayol, management was composed of five fundamental factors: planning, commanding, controlling, organising, and controlling (Kellerman, 2004). Most of his management concepts are still being used in the modern corporate world. For instance, Fayol argued that division of work reduces repetition leading to efficiency speed and accuracy. Moreover, although employees in an organisation seek authority, most people fear responsibility. However, morality and judgment is needed at senior management levels so that an organisation can be run professionally. Despite the fact that ‘command control’ does not apply ...
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