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3 pages/≈825 words
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
English (U.S.)
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Viruses And How They Affect Their Host And Their Specifics (Essay Sample)


Please write a paper about viruses and how they affect their host and their specifics


Viruses and how they affect their host and their specifics




A virus is the smallest microorganism, which is an infective agent that be viewed using microscopes and cannot reproduce and grow on its own except in the living cell of a host like animal, plant, bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoa. In epidemiology, infections depend on the interaction with the target, host and the environment where the agent leaves one host (reservoir) and is then transmitted to infect a susceptible host (CDC), 2018). The reservoir represents the environment where the infections agent lives, thrives and multiplies including animals, humans and the environment (including water plants and the soil). Some diseases are transmitted from one person to another without intermediaries when there is contact between people like sexually transmitted diseases. Carriers harbor pathogens, but may not show the symptoms of infections, but then transmit to other people or living organisms when they are in contact with them.

The mode of transition for viruses and there infective agent is direct including direct contact and droplet spread and indirect mode is airborne, vehicle-borne and vector-borne (CDC, 2018). Vehicle-borne transmission happens when there is contact or exposure to contaminated objects, and vector borne is transmission through invertebrate vectors like flies, ticks and mosquitoes some viruses can survive on surfaces, especially moist surfaces and if they are spread through human contact, those with broken skin are more vulnerable to infection. A susceptible host is vulnerable to viral infections and depends, genetic factors, specific immunity are other factors that limit the ability to resist infections as well as pathogenicity (CDC, 2018). Genetic predispositions increases or reduces susceptibility to infections from certain viruses. Specific immunity refers to the protective ability of the antibodies against the agent. The immunity is mainly acquired after vaccination and repose to previous infections. Any other factor that impairs the immune response increases susceptibility to viral infections.

When there is host infection, the viruses affect the normal cellular functioning making it possible to replicate in a more favorable environment (Desfarges & Ciuffi, 2012). For instance, some of the viruses

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