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Direct Antigen Testing of infectious diseases (Essay Sample)

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Response to each question 1-6 with 2 paragraphs with 150-200 words and include a scholarly reference within 5-8 years. Total of 6 Responses w/ (1) scholarly reference APA per response.
Discussion 1 (topic for this discussion is Direct Antigen Testing of infectious disease)
1. What are some of the newer tests in mycology and parasitology?
2. What are the newer tests for Mycobacteria and do you think culture will be replaced?
3. What is Zoonosis?
Discussion 2 (topic for this discussion is testing used in Virology)
4. How are the needed lab tests performed and on what type of equipment?
5. Who are some of the manufacturers and what instruments are used?
6. What is the basis of the testing method?

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Immunology
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Immunology
Discussion 1: Direct Antigen Testing of infectious diseases
Newer tests for mycology and parasitology
Some f the newer tests for mycology are serological tests, which include Agglutination Immunodiffusion (ID), Complement fixation test (CFT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Lateral flow assay (LFA), Counter immuno-electrophoresis (CIE) Radio immunosorbent assay (RIA). Serological tests are often done to illustrate antigens or antibodies in serum or other fluids in the body that is suspected of having been infected by bacteria. This test is gaining popularity in mycology because the results are often rapid and they also act as prognostic indicators (Wang et al., 2020)
Some of the newer tests in parasitology include nucleic acid amplification tests, NAATs, proteomic approaches, and simple and rapid diagnostic tests, RDTs. NAATs are more immediate and accurate. It is used to detect protozoan and helminths. RDPs are considered cheap and simple and are base on immunochromatography. The proteomic approach is the most recent one that uses spectrometry platforms in identifying the biomarkers, thus revealing the interactions of the complex host-pathogenic to differentiate active and cured diseases or diseases and infections (Bottieau, 2015).
Newer tests for mycobacteria
The newer tests for mycobacteria include radiology and direct examination. Radiology testing uses Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and high-resolution CT scans to detect pulmonary and extrapulmonary invasive IFIs, including aspergillosis. Direct Microscopic Examination of Clinical Specimen includes the examination of microbiological samples like the India ink and KOH. It is an effective way if diagnosing fungal infections because it is easy to observe fungal cells in clinical specimens than isolating in a culture. (Malhotra et al., 2014).
The newest ways of testing mycology are ultimately going to replace culture. Microbial or fungal culture includes the use of media for fungal growth like blood agar. These cultures are incubated in temperatures between 25°C and 37°C (Malhotra et al., 2014). Culture is a method that is likely to cause contamination hence not very useful. Highly skilled personnel are needed to minimize contamination. It means it eats into a lot of resources and time. The newer tests are more effective and consume fewer resources and time, and are likely to face off the fungal culture.
Zoonosis
A zoonosis, or zoonoses in the plural, refers to an infectious disease caused by a pathogen that leaves an animal and infects humans. Once the pathogen infects the person, it becomes contagious and can be transmitted from one person to another (Cheong et al., 2019). Examples of zoonoses diseases include the major diseases that have become significant pandemics in the world like ebola, COVID-19, and HIV, which has now mutated into a different.
Zoonosis is transmitted in different forms; direct contact, indirect contact, food, waterborne, vectors, and intermediate species. In direct transmissions, the diseases are ...

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