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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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Biomedical & Biomedical Sciences: Mutations Occur (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

1. Reflect on Avida-Ed Exercise 1 and pages 309-320 in the text. What does it mean when we say mutations occur at random?
2. Reflect on Avida-Ed Exercise 2 and pages 309-320 in the text. Do mutations arise as a result of the presence of a selective agent (that is, a need to occur) or randomly regardless of the environmental potential for natural selection? (Give an example of how mutations arise in the environment.)
3. Evolution is the change in how often one variation of a gene over a different variation is present in a population over time. How would you describe microevolution? Provide an example of microevolution.
4. What is a phylogenetic tree?
How are phylogenetic trees useful in science?
5. Define macroevolution. 
People disagree whether or not macroevolution exists. Explain why you agree or disagree that macroevolution exists.
6. Are we as humans evolving? If so, why? If not, why?
7. Think about technology, socially, genetically, nutritionally, and physically. List all the ways that humans are evolving.

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Content:

Biological & Biomedical Science
Institution Affiliation
Date
Biomedical & Biomedical Sciences
What does it mean when we say mutations occur at random?
The statement that mutation occurs randomly is somehow true and untrue. The truth in this statement is that the effects of mutation have no influence whatsoever on the chances that a mutation may or may not occur. In other words what I mean is that mutation occurs randomly, and it could be effective or useful. A mutation that causes beneficial changes to the DNA does not happen regularly because the subjected organism would benefit from it. Also, this statement can somehow be regarded as untrue because if one considers the fact that each and every mutation that has ever occurred occurs with similar levels of probability.
Do mutations arise as a result of the presence of a selective agent (that is, a need to occur) or randomly regardless of the environmental potential for natural selection? (Give an example of how mutations arise in the environment.)
Mutation has a rise due to the presence of selective agents. These agents affect the DNA of an organism causing it to record changes in terms of how their structures are. Mutation can either make an organism advantageous or disadvantageous to the surrounding environment depending on the type of mutation. Mutation is not caused by natural selection as natural selection only cause organisms to adapt better to the environment to avoid being wiped out. Natural selection is a natural system which tends to eliminate weak organisms from the environment and maintain the adaptive ones so that they can pass the desired genes to the following generation.
Evolution is the change in how often one variation of a gene over a different variation is present in a population over time. How would you describe microevolution? Provide an example of microevolution.
The term microevolution is a term that is used to refer to changes in allele frequencies that occurs over time in a given population. This change is caused by various processes some of which include mutation, selection and gene flow. The changes recorded in microevolution occur for less duration unlike those of macroevolution. Microevolution has been known to record greater changes and differe

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