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3 pages/≈825 words
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APA
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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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English (U.S.)
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Atherosclerosis- Human Organ Systems (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

Human Organ Systems
The human body is truly remarkable and is designed to function effectively. Organs are important structures composed of different tissues that facilitate specific functions within the body. Organs function as part of an integrated group of structures known as organ systems. These organ systems form the organizational units that are responsible for crucial processes necessary for sustaining life.
Examples of organ systems include, but are not limited to, the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, the musculoskeletal system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, and the respiratory system. Even organ systems do not function alone. These systems work together, interacting with other organs in a functional network that keeps the body in balance. (Look up the term homeostasis in your text.) When homeostasis or the normal functioning of organ systems is disrupted, disease may develop, causing injury to the body or even death.
The following case studies detail an outcome associated with a disease or organ malfunction:
Select ONE study to investigate further for your assignment.
Critically evaluate the information provided, and correlate it with the organ systems that are affected in the scenario. Use the information that you have gathered to answer the assignment questions that follow the case study. Present your work as an APA-formatted research report.
Case Study 1:
Atherosclerosis is narrowing of the arteries caused by the accumulation of fatty deposits on the arterial walls. On June 22, 2002, the St. Louis Cardinals were preparing for their upcoming baseball game against the Chicago Cubs. Concern arose when their prized pitcher, 33-year old Darryl Kile did not show up for practice. Soon after, he was found still in his hotel room where he had suddenly died in his sleep (New York Times, 2002). It was discovered that the cause of death was related to three of his coronary arteries being 80–90% blocked as a result of atherosclerosis (New York Times, 2002), which ultimately caused him to suffer a heart attack.
Answer the following 3 questions in regard to this case study:
Provide a description of how the heart functions. Based on this, explain why atherosclerosis would result in a heart attack.
How are arteries different from veins and capillaries? Describe the functions of arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Vertebrates and some invertebrates have a closed circulatory system. Describe each of these. Explain the advantage of having a closed circulatory system over an open circulatory system.
Case Study 2:
Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, causing an estimated 438,000 deaths—or about 1 out of every 5 smokers—each year (Woloshin, Schwartz, & Welch, 2008).
Mr. Amos is 57 years old and has been smoking for the past 30 years of his life. A recent doctor's visit revealed that Mr. Amos has stage-3 lung cancer, characterized by his symptoms of nagging chest pain, fatigue, coughing up blood, substantial weight loss, and increased carbon dioxide levels in his blood. The doctor informed Mr. Amos that had he quit his smoking habit several years ago, he would have reduced his risk for developing lung cancer later in life. Mr. Amos immediately began treatment for the lung cancer that had metastasized to his lymph nodes.
Answer the following 3 questions regarding this case study:
Briefly describe the respiratory system. What main components in cigarettes affect the respiratory system? Explain the effect of 2 compounds on specific organs, cells, and processes in the respiratory system.
There are alternate mechanisms of transporting carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) in the blood. Explain how smoking might lead to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Can smoking affect other organ systems of the body? Give specific examples, and briefly explain your answer.
Follow these guidelines for your APA research paper:
Utilize at least 2 credible sources to support the arguments presented in the paper. Make sure you cite them appropriately within your paper, and list the references in APA format on your Reference page.
In accordance with APA formatting requirements, your paper should include an Abstract, Title, and Reference page; should be double-spaced; and should include a running head and page numbers. Your paper should be 2–3 pages in length, not counting the Title page, Abstract, and Reference page.

source..
Content:

Atherosclerosis
Student’s Name
Institution
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
Case Study 2Mr. Amos is 57 years old and has been smoking for the past 30 years of his life. A recent doctor's visit revealed that Mr. Amos has stage-3 lung cancer, characterized by his symptoms of nagging chest pain, fatigue, coughing up blood, substantial weight loss, and increased carbon dioxide levels in his blood. The doctor informed Mr. Amos that had he quit his smoking habit several years ago, he would have reduced his risk for developing lung cancer later in life. Mr. Amos immediately began treatment for the lung cancer that had metastasized to his lymph nodes.
Discussion
Question 1
Briefly describe the respiratory system. What main components in cigarettes affect the respiratory system? Explain the effect of 2 compounds on specific organs, cells, and processes in the respiratory system.
The human respiratory system comprises of organs that are responsible for inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. Some of the primary organs of the human respiratory system comprise of the lungs, which are responsible for the exchange of gases people breathe. The red blood cells are responsible for collecting oxygen from the lungs and transporting it to all parts of the body (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, International Agency for Research on Cancer, & World Health Organization, 2012). During this process, they also collect carbon dioxide and take it back to the lungs where it is exhaled. The human body needs oxygen gas to sustain itself and a decrease in the levels of Carbon dioxide which is dangerous because it leads to a condition referred to as Anoxia.
Cigarettes are made up of solid phase particles of nicotine, naphthalene, tar, and phenols. Some of the major gases involved with the smoking of cigarettes are carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, and nitrogen oxides and liquid vapors like acetone, ammonia, benzene, methane among others (International Agency for Research on Cancer, & World Health Organization, 2012). Tobacco has several effects on the respiratory system like irritation of the trachea and the larynx. Smoking tobacco also causes a reduction in the functioning of the lungs and breathlessness due to narrowing and swelling of the lungs and excess mucus in the lungs (Van, & Bladh, 2016).
Smoking cigarettes produces tar which has chemicals that has cancer-causing substances like carcinogens — tar stains the teeth, fingernails, and lung tissues. Cigarettes have metals like cobalt, lead, and nickel that causes cancer. Tobacco smoke causes permanent damage to the airspace, impairment of the clearance of the lung system resulting from building up of poisonous substances which causes lung damage and irritation (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, International Agency for Research on Cancer, & World Health Organizatio

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