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Review Articles Visual & Performing Arts Essay Paper (Essay Sample)


please choose one part from part A, B, C,D; and review articles based on the introduction.
please please stick to the introduction.


Melencolia I Assignment - Bibliography Bibliography on Dürer’s Melencolia I: A: Essential Reference and Biographical Books: Campbell Hutchison, Jane. Albrecht Dürer: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland, 2000. Available on-line through the University of Toronto Library ( Panofsky, Erwin, The Life and Art of Albrecht Dürer. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955. On course reserve in UTSC Bladen Library. Ask at the Circulation Desk. Chipps Smith, Jeffrey, Albrecht Dürer. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Available on-line through the University of Toronto Library. ( Dürer and His Culture, ed. Dagmar Eichberger and Charles Zika. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. On course reserve in UTSC Bladen Library. Ask at the Circulation Desk. B: On-line summaries (and good quality impressions) of Melencolia I: *note, please do not use Wikipedia From Google Art Project: note the distinction between a basic Google search and Google Art Project d%C3%BCrer/ZgFaZbkDi0d1RA?hl=en ( From the Albertina Museum: 61957d2b60f8 ( 8da8-61957d2b60f8) From the British Museum: on_object_details/collection_image_gallery.aspx? assetId=1021371001&objectId=1363679&partId=1 ( t_details/collection_image_gallery.aspx? assetId=1021371001&objectId=1363679&partId=1) From the Metropolitan Museum of Art: searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=Durer+melencolia+I& amp;offset=0&rpp=20&pos=1 ( searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=Durer+melencolia+I&offse t=0&rpp=20&pos=1) From the National Gallery of Art, Washington: ( The Morgan Library and Museum: ( National Galleries, Scotland: ( From Grove Dictionary of Art online (more general information about Dürer): er/article/grove/art/T024180pg1#F015423 ( grove/art/T024180pg1#F015423) C: Books and articles from Albrecht Dürer: A Guide to Research From Campbell Hutchison’s work, I copied the entries that explore the Melencolia I (all comments are Campbell Hutchison’s annotations): Bailey, Martin. “Dürer’s Comet.” Apollo 141 (1995):19–32. The comet depicted in Melencolia I as a depiction of Halley’s Comet. Balus, W. “Dürer’s Melencolia I: Melancholy and the undecidable.” Artibus et Historiae 15 (1994):9–21. Bialostocki, Jan. “Dürer.” Encyclopedia of World Art, cols. 512–531. Ed.-inChief Massimo Pallottino. New York/Toronto/London: McGraw Hill, 1958. A detailed presentation of the facts of the artist’s life, and a discussion of his major works, by the major East European Dürer expert of his generation (1921–1989). Agrees with Panofsky’s interpretation of the Melencolia I as a Melancholia artificialis, or “artist’s melancholy,” with resonance in Dürer’s own experience. Presents a good capsule statement on the artist’s position vis-à-vis the onset of the Reformation. An excellent working bibliography extending to 1959, which includes a section on individual works and groups of works. Highly recommended. Bialostocki, Jan, Dürer and His Critics 1500–1971. Chapters in the History of Ideas Including a Collection of Texts, Saecula Spiritalia, Dieter Wuttke, 7. Baden-Baden: Valentin Koerner, 1986. An essential work for the study of Dürer reception, by the most highly respected and prolific of Poland’s art historians who before his early death was Director of the Institute for the History of Art at the University of Warsaw, curator of the Gallery of European Painting in the National Museum in Warsaw, and a member of many academic and scientific societies throughout Europe and the United States. The book was written largely during two of his many visits to the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton. Includes extensive quotations from German, French, Italian, and Latin texts (these last in translations made by William S. Heckscher). Topics include Dürer’s image as a new Apelles; Dürer and Raphael as twin cultural idols; the progress of connoisseurship; the Melencolia I and the Knight, Death, and Devil in the Romantic vision; “Dürer in the agony of German ideologies;” criticism from Ruskin to Fry; Dürer and the Reformation—the Apocalypse series and Four Apostles (or Holy Men); Italy and the Antique; progress and stasis in scholarship. Originals of the translated poetical texts are included in the Addenda. Bialostocki, Jan, “Myth and Allegory in Dürer’s Etchings and Engravings.” The Message of Images: Studies in the History of Art, 132–138. Jan Bialostocki. Bibliotheca Artibus et Historiae, Józef Grabski, Vienna: IRSA, Bialostocki. Bibliotheca Artibus et Historiae, Józef Grabski, Vienna: IRSA, 1988. An earlier version of this article from the Bialostocki omnibus previously appeared in the special issue of Print Review (1976), titled Tribute to Wolfgang Stechow (24–34), and is here dedicated to Stechow’s memory. The author both calls attention to the vast intellectual difference between Dürer’s usage of classical myth and allegory and the late medieval secular allegories that previous Northern graphic artists had depicted, and points out that his own mythological and allegorical themes were both extremely abstruse and remarkably short-lived, being confined to the years between 1495 and 1505. Surprisingly, there are none after the second journey to Italy, although his interest in Humanistic themes (e.g., Melencolia I) remained undiminished. His conclusion was that the artist’s basic interest in classical mythology accompanied his search for classical pathos formulae, and that when he felt that he had assimilated these sufficiently he returned to religious subject matter and to allegories under the guise of realism, such as The Landscape with Cannon or the Knight, Death, and Devil. Einem, Herbert von, “Notes on Dürer’s Melencolia I.” Print Review 5, Spring, 1976. A Tribute to Wolfgang Stechow (1976):35–39. Expanding on the research of Saxl, Panofsky, and Klibansky, discusses in particular the iconography of “Night”—one important respect in which Dürer’s Melencolia differs from calendar illustrations of the four temperaments, as well as from representations of Saturn, the planet of melancholy. Von Einem points out that Saturn also is the planet of Night, as well as of Melancholy, and that in south Italian medieval scrolls “Caligo” (Night) is personified as a woman covered by a mantle, her head resting in her hand. Cites an anonymous Venetian engraving of the early sixteenth century as a possible source, and reproduces the 1552 woodcut by Antonio Francesco Doni (I marmi that is dependent on it. Reaffirms Panofsky’s interpretation of the print as a “spiritual self portrait” of Dürer. Emmer, Michele. “Art and Mathematics: The Platonic Solids.” Leonardo 15, no. 4 (1982):277–282. Notes the special interest shown by Renaissance artists in geometric plane shapes and solid forms, particularly regular or Platonic solids. Mentions Uccello, and examines Dürer’s Melencolia I in this connection. Giuliano, Antonio. “Germania capta.” Xenia 16 (1988):101–114. Discusses the 1st century Roman relief of a Weeping Dacia, or “Germania capta,” formerly in the Cesi collection and now in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome, and its reputation and influence in sixteenth century art, illustrating examples of the Renaissance iconography of the seated woman holding her bowed head in grief, including Dürer’s Melencolia Hoffmann, Konrad. “Dürers Melencolia.” Print Collector’s Newsletter 9, no. 2 (1978):33–35. [See also the German version in the Gedenkschrift für Günther Bandmann.] A convincing revision of the standard interpretation by Panofsky. The author maintains that Dürer intended the bat—which proverbially shuns light—and not the human figure, to represent Melencolia I (this is why the creature holds the banner inscribed with the title). The allegorical human figure represents Melencolia generosa. The appearance of the rainbow over the watery landscape recalls God’s covenant with Noah after the Deluge. Hoffmann sees the tower, “apparently meant to reach the sky,” as a reference by Dürer meant to counteract the contemporary fear of a second deluge, provoked by Johannes Stoeffler’s prediction (in the Almanack of 1499) of a fatal planetary conjunction in the watery sign of Pisces (scheduled for 1524). The author is a member of the Kunsthistorisches Institut at the The author is a member of the Kunsthistorisches Institut at the University of Tübingen. Kaufmann, Thomas Da Costa. “Hermeneutics in the History of Art: Remarks on the Reception of Dürer in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries.” New Perspectives on the Art of Renaissance Nuremberg, 22– 39. Ed. Jeffrey Chipps Smith. Austin, TX: University of Texas—Archer M.Huntington Art Gallery, 1985. The author, a professor at Princeton who is the leading authority on the patronage of Rudolph II, discusses conflicting interpretations of Dürer as seen in the response to “Melencolia I,” and most particularly in various copies of the artist’s other works in which Dürer’s original images have been deliberately transformed either in scale, medium, or other visual aspects, making it clear that the copyist has considered questions of design, function or meaning. Lynch, Terence. “The Geometric Body in Dürer’s Engraving Melencolia I.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 45 (1982):226–232. The author demonstrates that the polyhedron in the foreground of Dürer’s engraving can be constructed in perspective, as shown, by means of only a straight-edge, compasses, and the magic square set in the wall. Moxey, Keith P.F. “Panofsky’s Melancolia.” The Practice of Theory: Poststructuralism, Cultural Politics, and Art History, 65–78. Ithaca, NY/London: Cornell University Press, 1994. Discusses Panofsky’s monograph on Dürer in terms of its author’s cultural and social values—in particular his commitment to Kantian reason—which is characterized as typical of his generation, and of his status as a member of an upper-class family of acculturated German Jews at a time when the destruction of German culture at the hands of Jews at a time when the destruction of German culture at the hands of the forces of unreason seemed imminent. He sees Panofsky’s choice of Dürer as an outstanding representative of the German “national” temperament, and the choice of the Melencolia I as emblematic of the artist’s struggle against unreason as reflecting Panofsky’s own state of mind as German emigré. Pingree, David. “A New Look at Melencolia I.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 43 (1980):257–258. Suggests an interpretation of Melencolia I based on astral magic— specifically that of the Picatrix, and sees the print as representing three states of being: terrestrial, celestial, and the intermediate in which the material and psychological elements of this world are formed. Accepts W.Heckscher’s explanation of the ladder—representing faith—as the means by which the soul ascends to the supercelestial, and the building as the tower of Wisdom. Sohm, Philip L. “Dürer’s Melencolia I: The Limits of Knowledge.” Studies in the History of Art: National Gallery of Art 9 (1980): 13–32. A well-documented study by a younger scholar now a professor in Toronto. He reviews the previous literature, accepting the pairing of the print with the Jerome in His Study, and reads it as a temporal sequence, with an implied past and a depicted present. He joins K.Rossmann (in the Festschrift for Karl Jaspers (Munich, 1953) and Konrad Hoffmann (q.v.) in rejecting Panofsky’s theory of the influence of Agrippa von Nettesheim, who characterized the melancholic state as a “frenzy.” Noting that the distance between the points of the commpass held by Melancholy is precisely equal to the radius of the sphere at her feet, as well as to one third of the rainbow’s radius, he maintains that Melancholy, having already measured earthly quantities with the tools and instruments of geometry, has failed to recognize the clues to God’s and instruments of geometry, has failed to recognize the clues to God’s existence until the arrival of the comet and the rainbow, at which time the saturnine bat is frightenend away by divine light. Yates, Frances A. “Chapman and Dürer on Inspired Melancholy.” The University of Rochester Library Bulletin 34 (1981):25–34. Citing Panofsky’s dependence upon a handwritten manuscript, dated 1510, of Agrippa von Nettesheim’s De occulta philosophia as the source of Dürer’s iconography of Melencolia I, Yates argues that his interpretation of the print is “a Romantic distortion.” Alternatively, she sees the winged figure in the engraving as “the Agrippian combination of Magica and Cabbala, surrounded by Saturnine allusions.” She interprets the figure as angelic; the ladder as an allusion to Jacob’s ladder “on which the angels ascend and descend.” Asking “Where, then, is Melancholy II?,” she argues that a trace of this supposedly lost work can be found in a poem by the Elizabethan writer George Chapman —“Shadow of Night” (1594). Although Yates was a preeminent authority on Elizabethan imagery, her theory did not find wide acceptance. D: Recent Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles (from 2000 to 2017): Carolin Behrmann, “ Metrics of Justice,” Nuncius, ISSN 0394-7394, 2015, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp. 161 – 194. Dixon, Laurinda, “Privileged Piety: Melancholia and the Herbal Tradition,” Journal of Historians of Netherlandish Art, Volume 1, Issue 2 (Summer 2009) DOI: 10.5092/jhna.2009.1.2.1 Available at ( Doorly, Patrick, “Dürer’s "Melencolia I": Plato's Abandoned Search for the Beautiful,” Art Bulletin, 86:2, (Jun., 2004), pp. 255-276. Gershman, Zheyna, “Dürer’s Enigma A Kabbalistic Revelation in Melencolia I” Aries, 18:2 (2018), pp. 217-257 Lear, Jackson, ed. “Dürer’s Melencolia I: New Looks” Raritan, 25: 3 (Winter 2006), pp. 129-153; 175-177. Marr, Alexander, “Ingenuity in Nuremburg: Dürer and Stabius’s Instrument Prints” Art Bulletin 100:3(2018), pp. 48-79. Moxey, Keith P.F., “Impossible Distance: Past and Present in the Study of Dürer and Grünewald,” Art Bulletin 86:4 (2004), pp. 750-763. Newman, Jane O., “Luther’s Birthday: Aby Warburg, Albrecht Dürer, and Early Modern Media in the Age of Modern War,” Daphnis 37:1/2 (2008), pp. 79-110. Press the Escape key to close Parshall, Peter, “Graphic Knowledge: Albrecht Dürer and the Imagination,” Art Bulletin 09/2013, 95:3 p. 393. Rothstein, Brett, “Making Trouble: Strange Wooden Objects and the Early Rothstein, Brett, “Making Trouble: Strange Wooden Objects and the Early Modern Pursuit of Difficulty,” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies, 13:1 (Winter, 2013), pp. 96-129, 170. Silver, Daniel, “Slicing a Cone for Art and Science,” American Scientist, 100:5 (2012), p. 1-8. Taylor, Glenn, “A Secret Message in Dürer’s Magic Square?” Notes in the History of Art, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Fall 2003), pp. 17-22. New publication (book not article): Merback, Mitchell, Perfection’s Therapy: An Essay on Albrecht Dürer’s Melencolia I. New York: Zone Books, 2017.


Component Article Review on Interpretations of Melencolia I
Component Article Review on Interpretations of Melencolia I
Melencolia I refers to an engraving done in 1514 by a German artist Albert Durer. It entails an image of a creature similar to a human being but with wings. The creature has the left hand supporting the head and in deep thought, the face is frowny, possible indication melancholia, which is a state of depression.[Panofsky et al. The life and art of Albrecht Dürer. 1955]
Jonathan Jones in his work Durer’s Melencolia I – Masterpiece and Diagnosis says that the artwork has amazed many people since Durer engraved it in 1954 and still appeals even today. He adds that many scholars tried to interpret the print and decode what message Durer really wanted to pass across. It has been 500 years and more yet scholars still struggle to break the riddle behind Durer’s art with divergent viewpoints put forward by different scholars. In this piece of review, I will sample some of the scholarly work on Melencolia I and the life of Albert Durer and give a rationale for my picks.
1 Panofsky, The Life, and Art of Albrecht Dürer (1955)

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