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# Reading Exercise from: Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition. Routledge (Coursework Sample)

Instructions:

Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition. Routledge.
6.1 INSTRUCTIONS
Rewrite each of the following syllogisms in standard form, and name its mood and figure. (Procedure: first, identify the conclusion; second, note its predicate term, which is the major term of the syllogism; third, identify the major premise, which is the premise containing the major term; fourth, verify that the other premise is the minor premise by checking to see that it contains the minor term, which is the subject term of the conclusion; fifth, rewrite the argument in standard form—major premise first, minor premise second, conclusion last; sixth, name the mood and figure of the syllogism.)
Example Problem
No nuclear-powered submarines are commercial vessels, so no warships are commercial vessels, because all nuclear-powered submarines are warships.
Example Solution
Step 1. The conclusion is “No warships are commercial vessels.”
Step 2. “Commercial vessels” is the predicate term of this conclusion and is therefore the major term of the syllogism.
Step 3. The major premise, the premise that contains this term, is “No nuclear-powered submarines are commercial vessels.”
Step 4. The remaining premise, “All nuclear-powered submarines are warships,” is indeed the minor premise, because it does contain the subject term of the conclusion, “warships.”
Step 5. In standard form this syllogism is written thus:
No nuclear-powered submarines are commercial vessels.
All nuclear-powered submarines are warships.
Therefore no warships are commercial vessels.
Step 6. The three propositions in this syllogism are, in order, E, A, and E. The middle term, “nuclear-powered submarines,” is the subject term of both premises, so the syllogism is in the third figure. The mood and figure of the syllogism therefore are EAE-3.
PROBLEMS
2. Some evergreens are objects of worship, because all fir trees are evergreens, and some objects of worship are fir trees.
3. All artificial satellites are important scientific achievements; therefore some important scientific achievements are not U.S. inventions, inasmuch as some artificial satellites are not U.S. inventions.
4. No television stars are certified public accountants, but all certified public accountants are people of good business sense; it follows that no television stars are people of good business sense.
5. Some conservatives are not advocates of high tariff rates, because all advocates of high tariff rates are Republicans, and some Republicans are not conservatives.
6. All CD players are delicate mechanisms, but no delicate mechanisms are suitable toys for children; consequently, no CD players are suitable toys for children.
7. All juvenile delinquents are maladjusted individuals, and some juvenile delinquents are products of broken homes; hence some maladjusted individuals are products of broken homes.
8. No stubborn individuals who never admit a mistake are good teachers, so, because some well-informed people are stubborn individuals who never admit a mistake, some good teachers are not well-informed people.
9. All proteins are organic compounds, hence all enzymes are proteins, as all enzymes are organic compounds.
10. No sports cars are vehicles intended to be driven at moderate speeds, but all automobiles designed for family use are vehicles intended to be driven at moderate speeds, from which it follows that no sports cars are automobiles designed for family use.
6.3 INSTRUCTIONS
Write out each of the following syllogistic forms, using S and P as the subject and predicate terms of the conclusion, and M as the middle term. (Refer to the chart of the four syllogistic figures, if necessary, on p. 235.) Then test the validity of each syllogistic form using a Venn diagram.
Example Problem
AEE–1
Example Solution
We are told that this syllogism is in the first figure, and therefore the middle term, M, is the subject term of the major premise and the predicate term of the minor premise. (See chart on p. 235.) The conclusion of the syllogism is an E proposition and therefore reads: No S is P. The first (major) premise (which contains the predicate term of the conclusion) is an A proposition, and therefore reads: All M is P. The second (minor) premise (which contains the subject term of the conclusion) is an E proposition and therefore reads: No S is M. This syllogism therefore reads as follows:
All M is P.
No S is M.
Therefore no S is P.
Tested by means of a Venn diagram, as in Figure 6-10, this syllogism is shown to be invalid.
Figure 6-10
PROBLEMS
2. EIO–2
3. OAO–3
4. AOO–4
5. EIO–4
INSTRUCTIONS
Put each of the following syllogisms into standard form, name its mood and figure, and test its validity using a Venn diagram:
PROBLEMS
1.Some reformers are fanatics, so some idealists are fanatics, because all reformers are idealists.
2.Some philosophers are mathematicians; hence some scientists are philosophers, because all scientists are mathematicians.
3.Some mammals are not horses, for no horses are centaurs, and all centaurs are mammals.
4.Some neurotics are not parasites, but all criminals are parasites; it follows that some neurotics are not criminals.
5.All underwater craft are submarines; therefore no submarines are pleasure vessels, because no pleasure vessels are underwater craft.
6.4 INSTRUCTIONS
Identify the rule that is broken by any of the following syllogisms that are invalid, and name the fallacy that is committed:
Example Problem
All chocolate éclairs are fattening foods, because all chocolate éclairs are rich desserts, and some fattening foods are not rich desserts.
Example Solution
In this syllogism the conclusion is affirmative (“all chocolate éclairs are fattening foods”), while one of the premises is negative (“some fattening foods are not rich desserts”). The syllogism therefore is invalid, violating the rule that if either premise is negative the conclusion must also be negative, thereby committing the fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion from a negative premise.
PROBLEMS
2. All inventors are people who see new patterns in familiar things, so all inventors are eccentrics, because all eccentrics are people who see new patterns in familiar things.
3. Some snakes are not dangerous animals, but all snakes are reptiles, therefore some dangerous animals are not reptiles.
4. Some foods that contain iron are toxic substances, for all fish containing mercury are foods that contain iron, and all fish containing mercury are toxic substances.
5. All opponents of basic economic and political changes are outspoken critics of the liberal leaders of Congress, and all right-wing extremists are opponents of basic economic and political changes. It follows that all outspoken critics of the liberal leaders of Congress are right-wing extremists.

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Content:

Copi, Irving M. Introduction to Logic, 14th Edition. Routledge
Name
Date
6.1 PROBLEMS
2. Some evergreens are objects of worship, because all fir trees are evergreens, and some objects of worship are fir trees.
Step 1- The conclusion is “some evergreens are objects of worship.”
Step 2- The predicate term is “objects of worship.” Step 3- The major premise is “Some objects of worship are fir trees.”
Step 4-The remaining/ minor premise is “All fir trees are evergreens.”
Step 5- In standard form this syllogism is written thus
Some objects of worship are fir trees All fir trees are evergreens.
Therefore some evergreens are objects of worship.
Step 6- The mood and figure of the syllogism therefore are IAI-4
3. All artificial satellites are important scientific achievements; therefore some important scientific achievements are not U.S. inventions, inasmuch as some artificial satellites are not U.S. inventions.
Step 1- The conclusion is “some important scientific achievements are not U.S. invention.”
Step 2- The predicate term is “U.S. invention.”
Step 3- The major premise is “Some artificial satellites are not U.S. inventions.”
Step 4-The remaining/ minor premise is “All artificial satellites are important scientific achievements.”
Step 5- In standard form this syllogism is written thus
Some artificial satellites are not U.S. inventions. All artificial satellites are important scientific achievements. Therefore some important scientific achievements are not U.S. invention
Step 6- The mood and figure of the syllogism therefore are OAO- 3
4. No television stars are certified public accountants, but all certified public accountants are people of good business sense; it follows that no television stars are people of good business sense.
Step 1- The conclusion is “no television stars are people of good business sense.”
Step 2- The predicate term is “people of good business sense.”
Step 3- The major premise is “All certified public accountants are people of good business sense Minor.”
Step 4-The remaining/ minor premise is “No television stars are certified public accountants”
Step 5- In standard form this syllogism is written thus
All certified public accountants are people of good business sense. No television stars are certified public accountants. No television stars are people of good business sense.
Step 6- The mood and figure of the syllogism therefore are AEE-1
5. Some conservatives are not advocates of high tariff rates, because all advocates of high tariff rates are Republicans, and some Republicans are not conservatives.
Step 1- The conclusion is “some conservatives are not advocates of high tariff rates.”
Step 2- The predicate term is “advocates of high tariff rates.”
Step 3- The major premise is “All advocates of high tariff rates are Republicans.”
Step 4-The remaining/ minor premise is “Republicans are not conservatives.”
Step 5- In standard form this syllogism is written thus
All advocates of high tariff rates are Republicans. Some Republicans are not conservatives. Some conservatives are not advocates of high tariff rates.
Step 6- The mood and figure of the syllogism therefore are AOO-4
6. All CD players are delicate mechanisms, but no delicate mechanisms are suitable toys for children; consequently, no CD players are suitable toys for children.
Step 1- The conclusion is “no CD players are suitable toys for children.”
Step 2- The predicate term is &...

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