Sampling, Article Review And Scales Of Measurement (Coursework Sample)
Answer the following statements: (5 points)
- Define a Population.
- Define a Sample.
- Provide an example of a research scenario and then discuss the Population and the Sample in the context of the scenario (2-3 sentences).
- Define Bias in the context of research.
- Indentify and define the four levels of measurement.
- Describe the characteristics of the population studied.
- Identify sampling procedures (e.g., simple random sampling), and explain why it was selected. Indicate the size of the sample.
- Was a probability sampling method used? Was it representative of the population?
- What was the response/participation rate? How did those who responded or participated differ from those who did not? How was this addressed?
- What statistical analysis was conducted?
- What were the units of analysis (e.g., individual, group, or program)?
- What was the level of measurement for the data?
- Was the information presented in the figures and tables clear and was it discussed in the text?
- What were the study findings? Were they discussed and described clearly and accurately? Were explanations proposed for any anticipated and unanticipated findings? Were the results substantively important? Were conclusions well grounded in the findings?
- Was the study conducted in an objective fashion? Is there any evidence of bias?
Your paper should include your name and course title and should adhere to APA style. It should also be written in 12-font and double-spaced (about 2 pages). Include the full reference of the article at the end of your document.source..
Sampling, Article Review and Scales of Measurement
Sampling, Article Review and Scales of Measurement
A population refers to a set of elements which possess common characteristics and is used researchers to draw conclusions.
A sample refers to the selected element in the population which has been chosen for the purpose of a certain study.
A scenario where we would like to research on pregnancy. The study population will be pregnant women. The number of pregnant women is large and for the purpose of research a sample has to be selected from the population.
Bias refers to a systematic error which affect research and the measurement process which lead to the study losing it validity.
The nominal level of measurement describes variables that are categorical in nature. The characteristics of the data collected fall into distinct categories
The ordinal level of measurement describes variables that can be ordered or ranked in some order of importance (Zeilinger, 2015). It describes most judgments about things. Majority of the scales utilized in social sciences are ordinal in nature.
The interval level of measurement describes classifies and orders the measurements. It also measures the distances between the intervals from low to high intervals such as temperature, time.
The ratio level of measurement describes measurements that have equal and zero values as well values (BASS, 2017,). There is a likelihood of having a zero income, education and no crime involvements, but it is rare to have ratio levels values in studies because it is hard to have zero attitudes towards variables to classify them in this level.
Probability Sampling or Nonprobability Sampling
Characteristics of the methodology
Limitations of the methodology
Create a short scenario where you would employ the sampling procedure
Involves selecting cases or units of observation as they become available to the researcher
There is no random selection.
There is a high risk of sampling error.
Data collected under this method has a high possibility of being biased.
Since it is used as the unit of observation become available the researcher may opt to use it in his or her workplace, at school or club when he wants to gather information that is readily available from such groups.
The researcher purposively selects subjects to fit the quotas identified.
Lack of sampling frame.
It gives no assurance that the sample is representative of the variables being studied.
Maybe used where the researcher intends to compare academic performance of different student in relation to their gender.
The researcher selects a sample depending on their professio
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