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DISCUSSION Mathematics & Economics Coursework Paper (Coursework Sample)


In this week's lecture we discussed the connection between social values and economic structures. These connections might be best illustrated by the example of Calvinist Geneva as discussed by Haig. For this week's assignment, I want you to pretend you are the head of a social council similar to the one discussed in the Geneva example. I also want you to assume two premises: 1) the subjectove value (i.e. a religion or a set of beliefs) can play an important role in determining the economic prosperity of a social system; and 2) the act of developing policies and plans in an attempt to shape society in a way that reflect social values. Assuming that you live in a pluralist society (i.e. more than one set of beliefs) and that your plans and policies will work as intended, discuss the following:
1) The costs and benefits associated with implementing social controls on a diverse populace.
2) What types of incentives (i.e. plans or policies) you would implement in the name of the 'greater good'.
Do not restate any of the sentences contained in this question. Use examples from the lecture and class discussion to support your answer. Outside information will be accepted, but we will fact check any and all claims we cannot immediately verify.
2020/2/7 OneNote… 1/7 2020年2月4日 星期二 上午9:12 Overview Weber Cities as markets Tawney Calvanism and capitalism The city as the spiritual home of capital Haig Imperfect sorting (squatter's paradox) Urban planning as decentralization Max Weber(1864-1920) "Father" of (German) sociology Not the only one Durkheim, Marx Monopoly over the use of force Cities as proximity, DOL, and exchange The city(1921) Posthumous publication Commercial, producer, merchant What are cities? Recall lecture one Functional definition Legal definition Weber's functional definition Proximity and enclosure Socially alienated Primary activities are trades and commerce Needs satisfied through exchange ->"A city, then ,is always a market centre (p.1211) An aside about capitalism Current 'mode of production' Mode of production= how we make things 'diagnosed' by marx What does it mean? Definitions of capitalism Adam Smith ->Advanced division of labor 2020/2/7 OneNote… 2/7 Karl Marx ->means of production Max Weber ->production for exchange Back to Weber Or is it Smith? Many cities depend on protection Protection offered by 'princes' In exchange for goods, tolls, taxes etc. Recall: states as coercive power Cities vs oikos Markets develop due to demand Origin of demand is important ->oikos= demand generated by 'princes' ->cities= demand generated by 'people' Types of cities 1: consumer cities Consumer city Origin of demand: wealthy elites (rentiers) ->princes ->'Manorial lords' ->Bourgeois/burghers ->Landlords ->Financiers Cities for the wealthy Current examples? Dubai, San Francisco Types of cities 2: producer cities Producer cities Origin of demand: ' the people' Trades workers Shop workers Manufacturing labor Luxury vs mass consumption Luxury demand from 'large consumers' ->see 'rentiers' on previous slide Mass consumption from 'the people' Relation to Fordism? Veblen? Types of cities 3: merchant cities Origin of demand: merchants Specific type of 'large consumer' Wealth derived from import, sale, and export Domestic imports (Pyongyang) Foreign exports (Riyadh) 2020/2/7 OneNote… 3/7 Import/ export (entrepot city) Spatial independence Do not require local consumer Large consumers can move Cities fail to capture value Modern examples? (Hongkong) Agrarian cities Settlements purposed for food production Centralized food depots Food for consumption and exchange Land/plot ownership important ->State owned ->Elite owned ->commonly owned Cities as development Cities as a 'stage' of development Between household and nation Not just an economic entity 'Urban economic policy' Stabilization policies ->maintain ties to countryside ->ensure stable conditions for exchange Popular when producer guilds in power Only enacted when market exchange emerges ->introduces risk ->no policy for oikos The politico- administrative city Weber's legal definition Urban territory/authority ->depends on administrative jurisdiction Functional definition spatially ambiguous ->census metropolitan area Political decision making power The Gemeinde Cities with special political institutions Marriage of fortress and market Requires decentralization of power Gemeinde criteria 5 criteria Fortification (security) A market (exchange) Its own courts and bylaws(autonomy) 2020/2/7 OneNote… 4/7 An associational structure (social cohesion) Administrative authority (municipal powers) The harmonious city Very few(if any) have existed Any modern example? (Monaco) Richard tawney (1880- 1962) English economic historian and sociologist Connecting religion to economy Extension of Weber's Protestant work ethic Religion and the rise of capitalism Religious subjectivity and production Influence of social institutions Intimation of modern thought ->'The relational turn' Protestantism The reformation (1517-1648) Martin Luther (1483-1564) Reaction against catholic church 'trip to Rome' 95 theses Transformation of European Christianity Some branches Lutheranism Presbyterianism Baptist Calvinist Calvinism Umbrella term Named after John Calvin (1509- 1564) Denotes numerous protectant sects Most common belief at time of writing Calvinism and capitalism Lutheranism emerged aside capitalism Capitalism established before calvinism Lutheranism decried accumulation Calvinism and the city Capital as a given Calvinism emerged as an urban movement Radical change 'came with a sword' "enterprise of commerce and finance" Preaching aimed at business class 2020/2/7 OneNote… 5/7 Acceptance of morality beyond subsistence Merits of accumulation Not a zero-sum game Growth doesn't have to hurt the poor Construct the world in God's image Pious accumulation Accumulation as virtuous Accumulation can be used to serve god Decries misuse and self-indulgence Allows for (limited usury) Core values align with capitalism ->thrift ->frugality ->diligence Social conditioning Religious subjectivity and production Production is pious ->Poverty and sloth are sins ->"If a man does not work, neither shall he eat" Teachings ->personal responsibility ->discipline ->asceticism A call to create christian social institutions Calvinist geneva Pious regulation Markets Crafts Buildings Fairs Prices Became the reality in Geneva Local regulations enforced by religious police Strict enforcement of Calvinist code ->enforcement included execution and torture Gemeinde? Benefits? Costs? Robert Haig (1887-1953) American economist Public finance, planning Towards and understanding of the metropolis 2 Imperfect price-based sorting 2020/2/7 OneNote… 6/7 Spatial disequilibria The city as economic functions What functions to decentralize? Cities as function Efficient economic exchange Proximity facilitates exchange Connects Haig to Weber, Cooley Economic activities gravitate to cities Economic activities as functions Activities require inputs, create outputs Creates ' functions' Gravitation creates congestion Main question: what to decentralize The location of functions Price-based sorting Recall: Von Thunen and bidding Land closest to the market is most valuable Profitable/heavy goods bid up price of land Should create urban districts The reality 'The mad hatter at alice's tea party' Disjuncture in sorting Remains functional Squatter's paradox Non-paying residents in high value location An aside about planning The city planning movement Paper published in 1926 City planning not institutionalized Reaction to negative social pathologies Planning as a check on free markets New York c. 1926 10 years before institutional planning Free market creates functional disarray Costs and benefits divided amongst classes Is planning better? Haig's mechanism Rent/transportation Substitute transportation costs for rent Most important for housing Businesses also have management costs ->Dispersion increases management costs 2020/2/7 OneNote… 7/7 Individual choice and friction Housing ->subjective determination of location Business ->profitability more important ->location still subjective Must consider management costs An appeal to planning The planner's role Minimize the 'cost of friction' in cities Social control without perfect information More capable than the free market? ->sub-optimal outcomes? market failures? A final note Transportation of intelligence Earliest mention I've read ->modern context Robert moses (1888- 1981) NYC "Master Builder" (1924-1975) Unelected, unaccountable power Wielded sweeping powers Post- depression recovery planning Famously discriminatory Dubai: playground of the wealthy The workers who come from South Asia(Suck living condition, undercontroled) Vertical farming "Building up" in agriculture Response to pressures on farmland Improved food security in urban markets Exercise In groups of 3 or 4, discuss: Potential costs and benefits Relation to this week's lecture


Social Controls in a Diverse Populace
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Social Controls in a Diverse Populace
The costs and benefits of Social Controls
Social controls have various benefits and costs when implemented in a society with a diverse populace. One of the benefits is that it eliminates greed; it ensures that no individual can have much more than the rest, and the government owns most of the businesses, implying that money is not the driving force in the society (Mьller & Pickles, 2015). It ensures the population’s needs are met; this implies that healthcare is universal, food is supplied, education is free, clothing is available and affordable, and people can access the other basic items, thus helping to reduce poverty. It also supports mobilization of goods; social controls create some sort of socialism in the society whereby the government has full control of goods and services, thus being in a position where it can mobilize the areas where they are needed the most (Kitching, 2019). As such, this shows that implementing social controls in a diverse populate contributes to socialism in which the entire society is under control and distribution of resources is controlled by the government, ensuring members of the society get the basic items and services affo

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