English Work: Quotations & Author’s Credibility (Coursework Sample)
1. Which of the above examples are quotations and which are paraphrases? Mark each one. How do you know?
2. When borrowing information you must give credit to the original author AND prove the author’s credibility.
- Circle the names of the authors. What do you notice about how the authors’ names are presented?
- Underline the information proving the author’s credibility. What two types of information are used here?
- Reporting verbs/phrases are words used to introduce borrowed information. Put a box around the reporting verbs/phrases. What tense is typically used? What reporting phrase is used?
- In APA style, the date of publication is also required. How is the date written? What information does the date follow?
- For quotations, the page number is required (if available). How is the page number written? Where does the page number appear?
- Punctuation for quotations must be exact. What do you notice about the TYPE (e.g. periods, commas...) and ORDER of the punctuation used?
D. Practice: Add APA style in-text citations to the quotes below taken from The Mosaics Reader textbook.
- (Quote from “Magpies” p. 2) I knew from the beginning our new home would not be an ordinary house
- (Quote from “El Hoyo,” pp. 10-11) However, it is doubtful that all these spiritual sons of Mexico live in El Hoyo because they love each other—many fights and bicker constantly
- (Quote from “Eleven,” p. 22) What they don’t understand about birthdays and what they never tell you is that when you’re eleven, you’re also ten, and nine, and eight, and seven, and six, and five, and four, and three, and two, and one
Check your work—Did you include the following?
- The author’s name?
- Information proving the author’s credibility?
- A unique reporting verb/phrase?
- The date of publication?
- Page numbers for quotations?
- Correct punctuation and correct order of punctuation.
Of the examples given above, a, b and e are quotations. This is due to the punctuation used. The use of quotation marks shows that the information provided is directly from the horse's mouth. Using example d for instance, “The specific activity doesn't matter”, says Oswald (1999), “The important thing is to interact” (pp 34-35). The quotation marks here show that it is a direct speech and thus a quotation. This applies to the other examples a and b.
Examples c and d are paraphrases. Also, the punctuation makes one identify so. The information being given is in reported form. The writer is reporting what the author said. The lack of quotation marks tells so. For instance, example c says, But social psychologists Carolyn Weisz and Lisa F. Wood (2005), at the University of Puget Sound, in Tacoma, Washington, explain that there is another component to a friendship that may trump event intimacy: social-identity support… In this example; it is not a direct speech as there are no speech marks.
* Eric Idle (a), Beverly Fehr (b), Carolyn Weisz (c), Lisa F. Wood (c), Debra Oswald(d and e) are the names of the authors in the examples. The names are presented in a manner that starts with the first name of the author than the family name. Those with three names like Lisa F. Wood; the middle name is abbreviated. Debra Oswald has been mentioned twice, in example d and e. In the first mention, both the first and the family name were mentioned. In the second mention, however, only the family name was mentioned.
* Monty Py
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