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Cosmological (Coursework Sample)

Book: Metaphysics - Van Inwagen Essay 2 - the essay instructions the other file is a detailed explanation FROM THE BOOK "METAPHYSICS -VAN INWAGEN" about cosmo thats it. It should be based on chapter 7. I dont get whats so complicated i hope the writer understands But i want the writer to use the book the file i sent is like just an explanation so the writer gets a clearer view source..

Cosmological Argument
In his book Metaphysics, Peter van Inwagen has mentioned principle of sufficient reason where has given different illustrations in this section for better understanding of the cosmological argument. We can emphasis the principle by looking at the way it is used and applied in the occurrence of a particular fact. In every element of truth, and looking at everything as they are, the author strongly affirms that there is adequate for any situation or circumstance.
What the principle of sufficient reason shows is that for any ideal question from human beings such as why a car cannot start, such a question has a response which is an answer, a perfect answer, an answer full of information, a fully and timely satisfying response. For this reason this is the principle of sufficient reason do exist. Lets think of the ‘why’ and the word ‘reason’. If a pedestrian is hit and dies on the spot, then two things evolve here; there was no adequate fact or reason at all for such death. We can say it happened because he or she was at the wrong place at the wrong time. Secondly, He could have died of massive or excessive trauma, which could have been due to the fast moving truck witch hit him.
There is much to be said for the said Principle of Sufficient Reason. Lets discuss the human being. Human beings have been related to other living organisms for many centuries. Modern science have reasonably used the word ‘inhabitants’ in the context which apes and beavers and elephants are referred to as “our fellow Inhabitants of the World,” Human beings are considered rational compared to Apes, beavers and elephants. Rationality is therefore unique and marks a great difference, a discontinuity between humanity and the wild organisms. Men have a little of, and we have more of, unlike apes, elephants and beavers and hence considered irrational beings. It is argued that human beings may indeed be more intelligent than apes; but not why we are rational and they are not like us. Attempting to cover up the study and findings of the entire universe in a single entity may appear as megalomaniac's dream. No scientist can for example say mountains were not there. Through this, the the principle sufficient reason comes in.
The basic ideas in Cosmology include: the concept that the Universe is homogeneous meaning all human beings see the same thing and that the Universe is isotropic – there is no preferred direction in the universe or there is independence of direction. Although cosmology deals with distances that are very long and mighty objects, it has also been shown and argued that in cosmology timescales that are very long are also part of this concept. From these we can say or conclude that the concept of cosmology though wide is concerned with different things. Not only is it concerned with individual stars in their own positions but with the unique and specific properties of th...
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