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APA
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Literature & Language
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Coursework
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English (U.S.)
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Annotated Bibliography (Coursework Sample)

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Aggression remains a behavior between people from the same species that is aimed at causing harm or pain and is considered an initiator of violence. According to sources, there is an increase of violent acts in schools with the troubled students needing a habilitative service as compared to punishments (Dailey, Frey, & Walker, 2015). It is essential to consider the fact that aggressive behaviors do not develop over a short period, thus its eradication as well would not be undertaken in a short time.

It is critical to note that teachers remain wholly responsible for the developing and modeling of aggressive behaviors among students that occurs either positively or negatively (Dailey, et.al). Aggressive students are thus likely to misinterpret the social cues, a factor that would lead to a hostile intent among others particularly during their periods of stress. This occurs since they have weak impulses control that can tolerate frustrations. This paper, therefore, seeks to determine the element of aggression in schools.

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Annotated Bibliography
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Annotated Bibliography
Dailey, A. L., Frey, A. J., & Walker, H. M. (2015). Relational Aggression in School Settings: Definition, Development, Strategies, and Implications. Children & Schools, 37(2), 79-88.
In this article, Dailey, Frey and Walker provide their definition of Relational Aggression (RA), they sum up the development of RA and highlight some of the latest intervention and prevention strategies for addressing Relational Aggression in elementary school and early childhood settings. The article is reliable and trustworthy as the authors examine a number of studies ranging from rural, suburban and urban school, together with different socio-cultural, racial and ethnic groups. Dailey, Frey and Walker effectively review a total of 13 programs. This article is germane and contributes to existing literature on the subject matter since the findings of the authors’ demonstrate that even though many interventions increase prosocial behaviours and reduce relationally aggressive behaviours, effect sizes of the interventions are different. At the conclusion of the article, Dailey, Frey and Walker provide useful recommendations that can be used to incorporate new interventions, together with implications for school social work practice, intervention research and education policy. All the authors are university professors, with Frey at the University of Oregon.
Farrell, A. D., Henry, D. B., Mays, S. A., & Schoeny, M. E. (2011). Parents as Moderators of the Impact of School Norms and Peer Influences on Aggression in Middle School Students. Child Development, 82(1), 146-161.
In their study as described in this article, Farrell, Henry, Mays and Schoeny investigated variables of parenting as protective elements of reducing the influence of peer and school risk factors on the aggression of adolescents. The authors collated 5 waves of data that span 3 years from over 5,580 learners at more than 36 schools. From their study, the authors learned that perceived school norms and class-level norms supporting aggression, parental support for non-violence and support for fighting, and delinquent peer association were each related to physical aggression in all waves. Every parenting variable moderated one or several risk factors, with the magnitude of several effects differing by gender and reducing with time. This article has consistency and is contributes significant knowledge to the field. Farrell, Henry, Mays and Schoeny provide an exhaustive discussion regarding the implications for the role that parents might play to reduce the impact of peer and school risk factors for aggression. Schoeny is a professor at the University of Chicago; Henry is a professor at Penn State University; Mays at Clemson University; and Farrell at University of Virginia.
Kármen, D., & Tefan, S. (2013). A Quantitative Meta-analysis of the Association between Subtypes of Aggression and Sociometric Status in Primary School Children. Transylvanian Journal of Psychology, 14(2), 149-172.
Karmen and Tefan conducted a quantitative meta-analysis that provides an exhaustive viewpoint with regard to specific associations between various subtypes and functions of aggression and the social perception of learners learning in primary classes. However, research in the field is conflicting given that aggressive learners are more often than not rejected by their classmates but they still have important peer group positions. This article is imperative as it demonstrates a noteworthy relationship between subtypes of aggression and soci...
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