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Safeguarding Genome Integrity Through Extraordinary DNA Repair (Coursework Sample)

Instructions:
Safeguarding_Genome_Integrity_Through_Extraordinary_DNA_Repair.docx Homework Assignment #1: Current Article (20 points) The article must be related to biology (some possible topics include extinction, genetics, medical issues, zoology, climate change, ecology, agriculture, biotechnology…). In a 1 page write-up, address the following: (1) briefly summarize article (DO NOT PLAGIARIZE) (2) answer the following questions: a) Did you learn something new? b) Has your viewpoint changed? c) What is the biological significance? (Why is it important? Who/what is impacted?) Safeguarding Genome Integrity Through Extraordinary DNA Repair... source..
Content:

Safeguarding Genome Integrity
Through Extraordinary DNA Repair
(Name)
(Course Number)
(Instructor’s Name)
(Date)
Safeguarding Genome Integrity
Through Extraordinary DNA Repair
Summary
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists, Gary Karpen, Irene Chiolo and their colleagues, from the U.S. Department of Energy have been studying the DNA of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. They have discovered a process repairing broken double-strands with the use of heterochromatin, a chromatin mostly known to contain “junk” DNA. They have discovered that heterochromatin is not junk at all. It plays an important role where it maintains the integrity of the chromosomes during cell division. The chromosomes’ integrity during this process is important because it is necessary for the normal function of the cells. Aberrations in the chromosomes (e.g. onset of cancer cell formation) generate severe consequences for the stability of the genes.
Two methods for the repair were noted. One method is the nonhomologous end-joining where the ends of the broken double-strands are basically cleaned up and glued together. The second method is the homologous recombination which is more accurate but complex because it involves many steps where a mistake can occur. This method involves the movement of proteins, such as Rad51, from a different chromosome to another during repair. This movement from one site to another may lead to splicing dissimilar chromosome together or it may also result to damage that is not repaired. This brought about a dilemma since the stability of the cells is vital. The scientists then discovered Smc5/6. It is a protein complex that inhibits Rad51 until the damaged DNA is outside the heterochromatin.
Chiolo stated that "This mechanism is crucial for safeguarding the genome by blocking aberrant recombination between different chromosomes, and promoting safe repair from a sister chromatin, or homolog, after the double-strand break has relocated outside the heterochromatin domain" (DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2011).
Reaction
I have learned a lot from reading this article. It has given me additional knowledge on the topic of genetics. The stability of a person’s genetic make up is an important matter in relation to one’s health. A simple damage to a persons DNA which may be caused by free radicals, exposure to radiation and the like may lead to serious problems like cancer, infertility, birth defects, anomalies, e...
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