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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
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Cell/Cell membrane/active transport Biological & Biomedical Essay (Coursework Sample)


•Cell Questions
1Describe the differences between plant and animal cells. Be specific.
2How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell? Which evolved first?
3How would a cell in the leaf differ from a cell in the stem? Think of their functions.
4a) How does the function of a somatic cell (like a muscle cell) differ from a bacterial cell?
5b) Based on your answer in a) what differences would you expect to see in terms of organelles?
•Cell Membrane Questions
5Explain the term “fluid mosaic”.
6Describe the various functions of integral proteins.
7What role does each component of the plasma membrane perform in order to carry out membrane functions?
8A new virus was discovered (CT4) that destroys the function of the golgi apparatus of beta cells in the pancreas of cows. The beta cells in the pancreas produce insulin. Explain in detail what this means at the cellular level and what cell processes are affected and how this may affect the cow.
9What factors affect the rate of diffusion? What factors affect the rate of osmosis?
10Describe the cotransport of glucose and sodium.
11What is meant by the terms symport and secondary transport?
•Passive and Active Transport Questions
12Many fruits are canned and preserved in a concentrated sugar solution. Using what you have learned, explain how this stops bacterial growth.
13Pacific salmon swim rapidly up fresh water rivers in British Columbia to spawn, and then die. Pacific salmon usually live in the salt water oceans. Suggest a reason why the fish die?
14Before refrigeration, people often stored meat packed in salt to act as a preservative. How does salt preserve meat?
15Certain spider toxins work by inhibiting Ca2+ channels. Brief explain how this works and what happens to the person.
16You are working with a health organization for the summer. Your team travels around remote parts of Central America setting up clinics and seeing patients in need of medical attention. In one clinic you come across several children suffering from cholera. From your understanding of grade 12 biology, you remember that cholera is caused by a bacterium. This bacterium affects the intestinal lining, producing a toxin that affects the active transport of chlorine ions and sodium ions. Research this topic as well as active transport. Explain how this can cause dehydration. Make some suggestions how the disease might be stopped at a molecular level.
18Your response to this question should be at least 1/2 page.


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Cell Questions:
1 Describe the differences between plant and animal cells. Be specific.
Plant cells are comprised of a cell wall, one large central vacuole, chloroplasts, plastids, a plasma membrane that has both of the cell wall and membrane, lysosomes that are not evident, and most do not contain cilia. On the contrary, animals do not possess a cell wall. Furthermore, they have only small vacuoles ,which can vary in number, as compared to plant cells, has centrioles, no plastids, a plasma membrane which is composed of the only cell membrane, and has cilia. Both of these have cytoplasm, ribosomes, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, and microtubules (Machalek, 2012).
2 How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell? Which evolved first?
Prokaryote differs from eukaryote such that it has a smaller cellular size, it contains no nucleus, no true membrane-bound nucleus, there’s absence of membrane-bound organelles except for smaller ribosomes, and its DNA is a single loop of chromosome stored in a nucleoid. Prokaryotes evolved first compared to eukaryotes (Basic Biology, n.d.).
3 How would a cell in the leaf differ from a cell in the stem? Think of their functions.

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