# Describe Epidemiological Data Sources And Measurements (Case Study Sample)

Case Assignment

Please answer the following questions in a 2- to 3-page paper:

1. A doctoral student is conducting a non-concurrent cohort study on the risk factors of a chronic disease. Tables 1 and 2 provide a summary of data that was collected on the 19,753 patients. Table 1 present the results of three Factors (A17, B24, C32)—note that these are just variable names—and they could represent variables such as age, race, sex, etc. Table two presents results by smoking level. Table 3 provides a summary of the multivariate analysis of the three variables and—in this case since the outcome is dichotomous (i.e. either you have the disease or you don't) we can use logistic regression model to study mulitple factors (such as A17 and different smoking levels) on the outcome and come up with adjusted Odds Ratios.

Table 1

Risk Factor Present

Risk Factor Absent

Factor

Total

Patients with Chronic Disease

Total

Patients with

Chronic Disease

Factor A17

2785

26

16968

170

Factor B24

2009

32

17744

164

Factor C32

641

13

19112

183

Table 2

Total Patients

Number of Patients with Chronic Disease

Smoking

None

1–10 cigarettes/day

11–20 cigarettes/day

21–30 cigarettes/day

>30 cigarettes/day

5030

6061

4572

2999

1091

15

21

43

56

61

Table 3

Multivariate Analysis

Factor

Adjusted OR

95% CI

Factor A17

0.86

0.55–1.29

Factor B24

1.50

0.97–2.27

Factor C32

1.98

1.03–3.50

A. Which measure of association would you use for this study? Why?

B. Using bivariate analysis, calculate the measure of association between the chronic disease and the following theoretical risk factors: A17, B24, C32, and smoking (at the different exposure levels). Provide 95% confidence intervals.

C. In narrative form, provide a description of the results for the bivariate and multivariate analysis.

D. Provide discussion and interpretation of the results from the bivariate and multivariate analysis. For the multivariate analysis explain why Odds Ratios are being used with Cohort data.

2. A second doctoral student is conducting a case control study on risk factors for an infectious disease and has collected the data below. Using bivariate analysis, calculate the measure of association between the disease and risk factor studied for each level of exposure. Provide 95% confidence intervals. Provide an interpretation of the results.

Factor BF

Case (n=186)

Control (n=277)

Not Received

Brand Y

Brand X—50 mg

Brand X—100 mg

Brand X—200 mg

15

11

28

46

86

78

35

70

50

44

*If you do not have access to a statistical software package such as SPSS, the following are online calculators that can be used for this assignment: 1) Odds Ratio Calculator, 2) Relative Risk Calculator or An optional calculator is available at http://statpages.org/ctab2x2.html

Name:

Institution:

Course:

Date:

A. Which measure of association would you use for this study? Why?

The measure of association that can be used in this study is the Rate Ratio. This is relative to the fact that is allows for comparison between the different groups when making the analysis. This uses the primary group in comparison to the comparison group. Giving a ration that can then be used to interpret the level of risk between the two groups ("Correlation Coefficient: Simple Definition, Formula, Easy Steps", 2017).

B. Using bivariate analysis, calculate the measure of association between the chronic disease and the following theoretical risk factors: A17, B24, C32, and smoking (at the different exposure levels). Provide 95% confidence intervals.

A bivariate analysis of the level of exposure to smoking compared to the factors A17, B24 and C32 indicates that, there is a positive correlation ("Correlation Coefficient: Simple Definition, Formula, Easy Steps", 2017). The correlation coefficient at the confidence level of 95% is o.4.

C. In narrative form, provide a description of the results for the bivariate and multivariate analysis.

According to the results, the positive coefficient on the correlation between the level of exposure and the persons that were considered to be suffering from the chronic diseases, this is a clear indication that smoking leads to disease. What is important is the fact that the 0.4 of the correlation coefficient is a positive figure (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017). This is to mean that the c

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