Case 1 Assignment: Financial Institutions and Markets (Case Study Sample)
In the word document of “Financial Institutions and Markets”, the highlight parts are requirements, and the yellow highlight part is the focus. In this document, choose one of the "quotations and references"（which is in the word document） to write in the paper.
The other 4 ppt, 1 pdf and 1 word document can help to write this paper.
5 resources, 5 pages, double-space, APA-style
C: "Chase Manhattan Bank is preparing its first asset-backed debt issue, becoming the last major consumer bank to plan to access the growing market. Asset-backed offerings enable banks to remove credit card or other loan receivables from their balance sheets, which helps them comply with capital requirements." Corporate Financing Week, October 29, 1990. What are the capital requirements referred to in this quotation?
The issue from the above quotation and reference refers to the capital requirements adopted after the implementation of the 1988 Basle Accord guidelines. The 1988 Basle Accord was meant to strengthen the reliability, soundness, dependability, and stability of the international banking system, allowing easy coordination of the regulation of capital adequacy. Adoption of the stricter risk-based capital requirements was to ensure that there was minimal competitive inequality among international banks (Hall, 1993). In accordance with the 1988 Basle Accord, the Federal Reserve Board endorsed the United State’s risk-based capital requirements, which took effect in March 1989 and were fully implemented starting December 1992 (Hall, 1992). The case above refers to the actions of Chase Manhattan Bank to securitize by issuing the first asset-backed debt issue, in compliance with the Basel Accord.
Implementation of the minimum capital requirements was aimed at pushing financial institutions to become better capitalized by raising their capital ratios and becoming less leveraged and encouraging companies to find alternative sources of capital. All the G10 countries, as well as Luxembourg and Switzerland, were the first countries to adopt the Basel Accord guidelines which were guided by two primary guidelines. The first purpose was to create a level playing ground for internationally active banks by raising the capital ratios. The guidelines intended to promote financial stability by promoting the adoption of a moderately simple approach to credit risk “with the potential to distort incentives for bank risk-taking” (Van Roy, 2005, p. 2). Having adequate capital levels ensured that commercial banks minimized the expected costs to the direct insurance system by lowering the likelihood of a financial institution from becoming insolvent (Hall, 1993). The minimum capital standards aimed at reducing risks exposed to banks in the course of their operations and ensured that commercial banks were able to access alternative sources of capital.
Before the adoption of the risk-based capital requirements, banks across the board were subjected to similar minimum capital ratio requirements, regardless of the risk levels of their portfolios. The traditional capital requirements were as follows: First, the primary capital, comprising of equity, loan-loss reserves, and some convertible debt and preferred stock, was set at least 5.5% of the assets. The second requirement, total capital, primarily disqualified subordinated debentures and the remaining preferred stock and was set at 6% if the total assets (Hall, 1993; Flannery & Rangan, 2007). The failure of the traditional capital requirements necessitated for the formulation of new, stricter capital standards to regulate the banking sector.
Adoption of the new risk-based standards indicated an explicit shift from the traditional capital standards, thus representing a fundamental change in the calculation of the riskiness of capital ratios. Saunders and Cornett (2018) posit that the Basel I Accord incorporated the varying credit risks of assets (both on and off the balance sheet) into capital adequacy measures. The two components of regulatory capital established in the new agreement included: Tier I which include “common equity, noncumulative ...
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