NURS 4115 Role Of The Nurse In Public And Global Health, (Article Critique Sample)
Assignment: Epidemiology in Public
and Global Health
Note: This Assignment is not due until Day 7 of Week 3.
Epidemiologic surveillance is used in public and global health. For this Assignment, begin by locating a recent article about an outbreak of an infectious or communicable disease. The article can come from a newspaper or other source but must be supported with scholarly literature.
For this Assignment, review the following:
Role of Nurse in Public and Global Health
Ebola Virus Disease-Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
On 9th May 2017, according to an article ‘Ebola virus disease-Democratic Republic of Congo', World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of deaths resulting from undiagnosed illness including hemorrhagic symptoms in Likati Health Zone, Bas Uele Province to the north of the DRC. Since 22nd April, three deaths and nine cases had been reported. Six cases were being hospitalized. On 11 May 2017, DRC's ministry of health informed WHO that one of the five samples had tested positive for RT-PCR for Ebola virus subtype Zaire. The other samples were being tested to confirm the outbreak. Although the investigations were still going on, the first case (which was likely the index case) of a 39-year-old male presented onset of symptoms since 22nd April and died on arrival at the hospital. The symptoms included epistaxis, bloody diarrhea, hematuria, and hematemesis. Cases of the two people who came to contact with the deceased (a taxi driver who has since passed on and the person who took care of the deceased currently presenting similar symptoms) are being investigated (World Health organization, 2017).
Ebola's Epidemiological Triangle
For an infectious disease to spread, it requires a susceptible host and an infective agent within and environment that bring them into close contact (Nash, Dalziel & Fitzgerald, 2015). Ebola virus is made up of a single-stranded negative linear genome that encodes seven genes, NP, VP35, VP40, VP30, VP24, L, and GP (Rougeron, et al., 2015). There are five known Ebola virus species within the genus Ebola virus. The genomes of the five different species viruses are different with respect to number, location, sequence and gene overlaps. Ebola virus is a serious threat to both humans and animals with a fatality rate of 90%. The virus is transmitted from wildlife to humans through intermediate hosts such as pigs, apes or monkeys and direct contact with infected fruit bats. Ebola virus infects humans through direct contact with body fluids or blood. Ebola has an incubation period of 2-21 days, and it is recommended that suspected persons are secluded for three weeks to monitor the case. Infection occurs so long as there is sufficient viral load in the body fluids.
All human beings are equally susceptible to Ebola virus. Ebola interferes with the proper functioning of the human immunity making the white blood cells unable to respond to the infection. As it inhibits the functioning of the responsible cells for infection, it then quickly spreads to all parts of the body.
Outbreaks of Ebola have been associated with both wet and dry conditions. Seasonal migration of fruit bats has been reported to lead to high contact between the virus and humans as well as animals. Naturally, bats host millions of viruses that are highly pathogenic to humans (Basta & Cowling, 2014). Behavioral and seasonal factors such as long migratory flight among the bats may influence metabolic rate and temperature. As a result,
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